Cardiac Anatomy

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  1. What is the size and location of the heart?
    • Size:
    • Approximately the size of your fist
    • Weight approx 200-400 grams


    • *Superior surface of diaphragm
    • *2/3 Left of the midline
    • *Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum
  2. Describe the Pericardium
    *Pericardium – a double-walled sac around the heart composed of:

    1.A superficial fibrous pericardium

    2.A deep two-layer serous pericardium

    a.The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium

    b.The visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart

    • They are separated by the fluid-filled pericardial cavity
  3. What is the function of the Pericardium?
    *Protects and anchors the heart

    *Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood

    *Allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction-free environment
  4. What are the layers of the heart wall?
    *Epicardium – visceral layer of the serous pericardium

    *Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart

    • *Fibrous skeleton of the heart –
    • crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue

    *Endocardium – endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface
  5. A. The major vessels returning
    blood to the heart are:

    B. The major vessels conveying blood away
    from the heart are:
    A.1.Superior and inferior venae cavae

    • A.2.Right and left pulmonary
    • veins

    B.1.Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left pulmonary arteries

    B.2.Ascending aorta (three branches) –

    • a.Brachiocephalic; b.Left common
    • carotid; c.Subclavian arteries
  6. Describe the pathway of blood through the heart & lungs
    *Right atrium --> tricuspid valve -->right ventricle

    *Right ventricle -->pulmonary semilunar valve -->pulmonary arteries -->lungs

    *Lungs --> pulmonary veins -->left atrium

    *Left atrium -->bicuspid/mitral valve -->left ventricle

    *Left ventricle --> aortic semilunar valve --> aorta

    *Aorta --> systemic circulation
  7. What are the main anatomical planes of the body?
    • *FRONTAL (or coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts
    • *MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into Right and Left parts
    • *HORIZONTAL/TRANSVERSE separates the body into Superior and Inferior parts
    • *SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the median plane
    • *OBLIQUE a slice at an angle
  8. What are the main terms of relation or position when describing anatomical locations?
    superior (closer to the head)

    inferior (closer to the feet)

    posterior (dorsal) closer to the posterior surface of the body

    anterior (ventral) closer to the anterior surface of the body

    medial (lying closer to the midline)

    lateral (lying further away from the midline)

    proximal closer to the origin of a structure

    distal further away from the origin of a structure
  9. Congestive Cardiac Failure
    *Causes of CHF

     -coronary artery disease, hypertension, MI,  valve disorders,congenital defects

    • *Left side heart failure
    • -less effective pump so more blood remains in ventricle --> heart is overstretched & even more blood remains --> blood backs up into lungs as
    • pulmonary edema --> suffocation & lack of oxygen to the tissues

    *Right side failure -->fluid builds up in tissues as peripheral edema
  10. Age-Related Changes Affecting the Heart
    *Sclerosis and thickening of valve flaps

    *Decline in cardiac reserve

    *Fibrosis of cardiac muscle

  11. Congestive Cardiac Failure cause by:
    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is caused by:

    *Coronary atherosclerosis

    *Persistent high blood pressure

    *Multiple myocardial infarcts

    *Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) – main pumping chambers of the heart are dilated and contract poorly
  12. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Stroke Volume:
    Contractility is the increase in contractile strength, independent of stretch and EDV

    Increase in contractility comes from:

    *Increased sympathetic stimuli

    *Certain hormones

    *Ca2+ and some drugs
  13. §Preload, or degree of stretch, of cardiac muscle
    cells before they contract is the critical factor controlling stroke volume
  14. §Slow heartbeat and exercise increase venous return
    to the heart, increasing SV
  15. Blood loss and extremely rapid
    heartbeat decrease SV
Card Set:
Cardiac Anatomy
2013-08-15 06:28:41

Cardiac Anatomy Flashcards
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