20 - Epidemiology
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What is epidemiology?
Study of the spread and control of disease.
What must happen in order for a disease to spread?
- Pathogen must have suitable environment to live.
- Pathogen must leave reservoir to be transmitted to host.
What are non-communicable diseases usually the result of?
- Individual's own normal flora
- Environmental reservoir
What is the "rate" of a disease?
Percentage of the population infected.
What are epidemiologists concerned with?
- The rate of disease in a population:
- Causative agent
- Route of transmission
What is the Attack Rate?
- Number of cases developing in a group of people exposed
- Example: 10 people out of 100 = 10% Attack Rate
What is the mortality rate?
Number of people who die from the disease.
What is incidence?
Number of new cases per specific time period
What is prevalence?
Total number of existing cases
What is "endemic?"
Diseases that are constantly present
What is an epidemic?
Unsually large number of cases present in a population
What is a pandemic?
- An epidemic that has spread worldwide
- Example: SARS
What is an outbreak?
Cluster of cases in a brief time affecting a specific population
What are the 3 types of pathogen reservoirs?
- Non-human animal
What are sympomatic and asymptomatic human reservoirs?
- Symptomatic - Obvious source of infected agents
- Asymptomatic - Harbors pathogen with no ill effects
What is "zoonotic?"
A disease that travels from animal to human .
What are common environmental reservoirs?
- - Difficult or nearly impossible to eliminate
What are the human "portals of exit" for pathogens?
- Saliva or Respiratory Droplets
- Sloughed off skin
What is horizontal transmission?
Transmission of pathogen via contact with food, water or living agent.
What is vertical transmission?
Transmission of pathogen from mother to child via breastfeeding.
What is "direct contact?"
Person to person transmission of pathogen
What is "indirect contact?"
- Transmission of pathogen via inanimate objects or fomites;
- Clothing, tabletops, drinking glasses
How does droplet transmission work?
- Droplet usually falls to the ground within 3 feet of release, but people in close proximity can inhale droplets.
- Considered direct contact.
What can eliminate water born diseases?
Filtration and Chlorination
What is a droplet nuclei?
Respiratory droplets that have dried in the air, leaving pathogen suspended in air currents.
What are the main human portals of entry?
- Respiratory Tract
- Broken Skin
- Digestive Tract
- Genitourinary Tract
What is pathogen dose?
Minimum number of bacteria required to establish disease
What effect does age have on immunity?
- Very young have underdeveloped immune systems
- Older people have waning immune systems.
- Both are more susceptible to disease
What is the incubation period?
Period between infection and appearance of systems
- Centers for Disease Control
- World Health Organization
What are Emerging Diseases and what causes them?
- New diseases that are emerging, and old diseases that are making a comeback
- Microbial Evolution
- Vaccination Complacency
- Advances in Technology
- Population Spread
- Climate Changes
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