HIS 1053 final
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How did the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union change following WWII?
They had clashing interests and different visions of the post war world
What is the domino theory?
If one country fell to a communist aggression, other countries would soon fall
Where did the us first used the policy of containment?
In Turkey and Greece in 1947
Who was George Kennan and what was the policy of containment?
A career diplomat and expert on Russia; an attempt to restrain Soviet power by combating socialism and communism around the globe
What was the Truman Doctrine?
The doctrine of containment. It outlined the domino theory warning that if Greece fell to the rebels, confusion and disorder would spread throughout the entire Middle East and create instability in Europe. It stated that the U.S. needed to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
What was the Marshall Plan?
An assistance program for war ravished European nations. The u.s. spent $13 billion to restore their economies. Most of the European nations used the funds to stimulate their economies and buy American Products
What was the Berlin Airlift?
When the Soviets cut off access to Berlin, u.s. and British pilots airlifted 2.3 million tons of goods to west Berliners for nearly a year.
What did the Berlin airlift confirm for many Americans?
The policy of containment; when challenged, the Russians backed down
What was NATO?
North Atlantic treaty organization; a peacetime military alliance.
What does third world mean?
Countries that were outside the western and eastern blocs that had yet to develop industrial economies
What was happening in China at this time?
Chinese nationalists fled the people's Republic of China in 1949; the United States sent aid to the nationalists in Taiwan; nationalist gov't collapsed in China
When did the official occupation of Japan end?
When the United States and Japan signed a peace treaty and Mutual Security pact in September 1951
Know details about the creation of Israel.
After WWII, more Jews wanted Palestine to become a safe homeland; Truman wanted to remain Allies with Arabic nations (oil, block communism); moral commitment to holocaust survivors and supported the creation of Israel.
What is the Employment Act of 1946?
It formalized the us government's responsibility for keeping the economy healthy
What was the Fair Deal?
The package of initiatives proposed by President Truman in 1945; it included civil rights, housing, education, and health care. Republicans and southern democrats blocked most of Truman's agenda.
What was the most severe problem in the early post-war years?
Inflation (not unemployment)
What was happening with organized labor at this in the 40's and 50's?
Organized labor was stronger than ever, yet union members feared the erosion of wartime gains and launched an intense struggle to preserve them. Five million workers went on strike in 1946, affecting nearly every major industry. Americans approved of unions in principle, but they became fed up with the strikes, and blamed unions for shortages in rising prices; they called for government restrictions on organized labor.
What was happening with African Americans and Mexican-Americans at this time?
If they had contributed to the U.S.'s victory in WWII, and felt that they could expect better treatment. By 1953 Truman had successfully desegregated the armed services and supported civil rights cases in the Supreme Court.
What Federal Court decision did Mexican Americans win in 1947?
It outlawed the segregation of Mexican American children in schools
Why did Truman's fair deal fail?
Because of the Republican Party's gains in the election of 1946. Congress weakened reform plans, enacted tax cuts favoring higher-income groups, and passed the Taft-Hartley act
What factors contributed to McCarthyism?
The emergence of the Soviet Union as the U.S.'s primary international rival, the establishment of the people's Republic of China, testimony from former communists that they and others had assisted the Soviet Union
Who was McCarthy and what was McCarthyism?
- A Wisconsin senator who led senate investigations into alleged internal subversion of the United States. His charges were reckless and often ludicrous, but the press covered him avidly, the McCarthyism became a term synonymous with the anticommunist crusades.
- Know details about the Korean War.
Following WWII, Korea was separated into two occupation zones separated by which parallel?
What did the United States do in June 1950 when North Koreans made military incursions into South Korea?
They led a UN sponsored effort to repel the attack and sent troops to Korea to "contain" communist North Korea.
Who crossed the 38th parallel and moved toward the Chinese border?
How did Truman respond when Macarthur crossed the 38th parallel?
He fired Macarthur, and his administration limited the goal of the war to containment
Who won the election of 1952?
Eisenhower beat Stevenson
What pledge helped Eisenhower win the 1952 election?
His pledge to end the Korean war
What was the result of the armistice that ended the Korean War?
North and South Korea remained and separated at the 38th parallel. The Truman administration judged the war a success for containment.
The Korean War contributed to American involvement in _______.
Know details about the Interstate Highway and Defense System Act of 1956.
- It was Eisenhower's most important and far reaching domestic initiative
- Promoted as essential to national defense
- Automobile and trucking industry benefitted from the law
- Increased American mobility and spurred suburban expansion
Know details about the Indian Relocation Act and the policy of termination.
- The Indian relocation act reversed the emphasis on strengthening tribal governments and preserving Indian culture that had been established in the 1930s
- "Termination" meant ending the special relationship between Indians and the Federal government by transferring jurisdiction over tribal lands to state and local governments. The loss of the Federal hospitals, schools, and other special arrangements devastated Indian tribes
Know details about the U.S.s growing involvement in Viet Nam.
- Domino Theory
- Ho Chi Minh, a communist and nationalist, won independence from France in 1954
- Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, separating the Vietminh in the north from the puppet government established by the French in the south
- the Vietnamese people were to vote in elections for unified government
- The U.S. provided support to the southern Vietnamese gov't even though it was corrupt, and supported Diem's refusal to hold elections because they did not want to see a communist popularly elected
What is Mutually Assured Destruction?
Both would be destroyed if either launch an attack on the other; led both superpowers to show restraint; did not prevent them from attempting to achieve nuclear superiority.
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Supported U.S. economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern nation "requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism."
What shift happened in the U.S. economy in the 1950s?
The economy shifted from production to service
What was happening with labor and labor unions in the 1950's?
The merger of the AFL and CIO improved labor's bargaining position; labor unions enjoyed their greatest success during the 1950s, and real earnings for production workers rose 40%.
What was the sunbelt and what was happening there?
The Southern United States from Florida to California; full of defense industry jobs, suburbs, and shopping centers. The technology of air conditioning facilitated industrial development
What was happening with Mexican Americans at this time?
Sun Belt depended on Mexican migration for workforce (agricultural economy); gov't initiated "Operation Wetback" to locate and deport illegal immigrants in 1954; Hernandez v. Texas ruled that excluding Hispanics from juries was unconstitutional
Know details about Brown v the Board of Education
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, ruled that separate schools were inherently unequal
Know details about the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
First Civil Rights legislation since reconstruction, little more than symbolic
What changes happened to the Pledge of Allegiance and to U.S. currency at this time?
"in god we trust" and "under god" added
Who was Betty Friedan and what was The Feminine Mystique?
- Writer and feminist who wrote a book criticizing scholars, advertisers, and public officials for assuming that biological differences dictated different roles for men and women
- The "feminine Mystique" said that women should find fulfillment in devotion to their homes, families, and serving others
How did the widespread use of television change American society?
- Affected politics (campaign ads), candidates depended more on their own campaign organizations and relied less on political parties, premium on attractiveness, fund-raising for expensive TV ads
- Fueled consumer culture with product ads,
How did rock and roll change American society?
challenged American social norms because it was sexually suggestive
Who were Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac?
Beat generation authors who rejected mainstream culture
Why were Alfred Kinsey's books criticized?
because the author refused to make moral judgments on his findings that sexual promiscuity was more prevalent than had been thought
What factors contributed to John Kennedys election as president in 1960?
Nixon was associated with Eisenhower (the "grandfatherly" president) while JFK was new/young/vigorous, TV images, blacks looked to JFK for change, chose LBJ as VP (south, action)
Know details about Kennedys administration.
JFK inspired Americans, he was competitive/ambitious in the space race, implemented poverty and government programs, tax cuts, started a civil rights bill
Know details about the Kennedy assassination.
- Date: November 22, 1963
- Location: Dallas, TX
- LBJ sworn in same day
Know details about Lyndon Johnsons administration.
Dynamic force in Senate, wanted to honor JFK's agenda and LBJ used that to get many bills passed early in his term; defeated AZ senator Goldwater
What was the Great Society?
- President Johnson's domestic legislative agenda.
- Dealt with discrimination, poverty, education, medical care, housing, consumer and environmental protection, and more.
- Had a lasting impact on society (although it was criticized as having shortcomings)
- Invested heavily in the public sector.
- Reduced poverty from 20% to 13% between 59 and 68.
What was the War on Poverty?
Included the Economic Opportunity Act, included increases in aid, equipped the poor with the skills necessary to find jobs.
Know details about Medicare and Medicaid.
Medicare for old people, Medicaid for poor people. Medicare funded through social security.
What was the Economic Opportunity Act?
The opening shot on Johnson's War on Poverty; food stamps, rent supplements, community improvements, etc.
Who benefited most from Johnsons Great Society programs?
Elderly, whites, male-headed families benefitted more than women or racial minorities
Know details about the Supreme Court under Justice Earl Warren.
- liberal interpretation of the constitution, stressed equality and individual rights, very controversial, held up over time.
- Ruled against segregating public places, made interracial marriage legal (loving v Virginia), etc.
- Baker v Carr - "one person, one vote," redrew electoral districts
- Miranda Rights, criminal justice system reform, court appointed attorneys
- Struck down laws requiring bible reading in public schools (ASD v Schmepp)
Know details about the Civil Rights Movementwho were the leaders---what were their philosophies---what were the major incidents that occurred?
MLK, Malcolm X, Baker (SNCC), CORE, Medgar Evers (NAACP leader), Stokley Carmicheal (Black Power),
What was Mississippi Freedom Summer?
Whites came down to help register black voters.
How did politicians react to the call for civil rights?
Reluctantly, thought it was a state issue.
Civil Rights Act of 1964.
guaranteed access to public accommodations, education, employment, and voting, and extended constitutional protections to Indians.
banned discrimination in employment (race and gender)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
authorized direct federal intervention to enable blacks to register and vote. Increased number of blacks holding office.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Equality in housing, jury selection, and authorized federal intervention when states failed to protect civil rights workers from violence
Know details about Affirmative Action.
Required employers with gov't contracts to "take affirmative action" to ensure equal opportunity in employment, DOES NOT require quotas, does not require hiring unqualified workers. Created to counter the effects of discrimination and require corporations to hire from the entire available pool of qualified candidates.
How did the Civil Rights Movement evolve over time? What caused the changes?
Moved from non-violence toward violence. Assassinations led to changes.
Know details about Martin Luther King.
Nonviolent, minister, assassinated April 4, 1968 in Memphis.
Know details about the Native American civil rights movement.
Tried to reclaim NA culture, demonstrations and land occupations, Dennis Banks and George Mitchell founded American Indian Movement, Alcatraz, Siege at Wounded Knee.
Know details about the Hispanic civil rights movement.
Fastest growing minority group, League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC), generational differences (young wanted direct action), Cesar Chavez and Delores Huerta organized the United Farm Workers Union, "chicano power" political party helped bring better representation
What were the Stonewall Riots?
Night Club riots in NYC over gay rights
Know details about the Feminist movement.
Equal pay act, Roe v Wade, Title IX (sports and scholarships)
Know details about the Equal Rights Amendment.
DID NOT PASS, would have outlawed differential treatment of men and women under all state and federal laws.
Who was Phyllis Schlafly?
mobilized a grassroots campaign to defeat the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) saying it devalued women as wives and mothers
Know details about the student rebellion. What was SDS?
Baby boomers, hypocrisy of gov't and other issues, SDS centered at Berkeley,
Know details about Richard Nixons election and his policies.
Return to American values, silent majority, expanded welfare and environmental regulations and assistance to minorities, enacted Pell Grants, subsidies increased, initiated economic policies, won reelection in 1972, EPA, reluctant to obey Supreme Court rulings on desegregation, Affirmative Action, Voting Rights Act, EO Commission
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