Music History Review (more concise)

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Music History Review (more concise)
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  1. The earliest known system for musical notation is credited to the:
    Babylonians
  2. The Babylonians are credited for what in music history?
    Having the earliest known system for musical notation. (1800 B.C.E.)
  3. What are the two Perfect Systems in Ancient Greek Music?
    Lesser Perfect System and Greater Perfect System. These were the systems of tetrachords. The LPS spanned an octave and a fourth. The GPS spanned two octaves.
  4. Tetrachords were a hallmark of what civilizaton?
    Ancient Greece.
  5. The Lesser Perfect System combined tetrachords to complete:
    an octave plus a fourth.
  6. The Greater Perfect System combined tetrachords to complete:
    Two octaves.
  7. Aristocenus remarked that the following genre of tetrachord was the oldest and most natural:
    Diatonic.
  8. Explain what Greek Tetrachords were like.
    A combination of four notes spanning a fourth, of which the two middle notes indicated the genre.
  9. Describe the three genres of tetrachords from Ancient Greece
    • Diatonic - two middle notes = whole step
    • Chromatic - two middle notes = half step
    • Enharmonic - two middle notes = quarter step
  10. The following instrument was used in the worship of Dionysus, god of fertility and wine:
    Aulos
  11. The aulos was an instrument used in the worship of which god in Ancient greece?
    Dionysus
  12. The following instrument was used in worship of Apollo:
    lyre
  13. The lyre was used in the worship for which god in Ancient Greece?
    Apollo
  14. Aristotle believed that music imitated ethos through the choice of which two musical features?
    Scale-type and rhythm.
  15. Scale-type and rhythm were important to Aristotle. Why?
    He believed that these two features of music impacted a person's ethos.
  16. The earliest composer known by name is:
    Enhueduanna, of Ancient Mesopotamia
  17. Who was Enhueduanna?
    The first composer known by name in history, from Ancient Mesopotamia.
  18. Evidence of pre-historic musical cultures can be found how?
    Surviving instruments, and visual images of musicians and instruments.
  19. Define: monophonic
    a single, unaccompanied melodic line
  20. What type of music consists of a single, unaccompanied melodic line?
    Monophonic
  21. Define: polyphonic
    two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody
  22. Define: homophonic
    multiple voices moving together in the same rhythm
  23. Define: heterophonic
    Multiple voices moving, one singing melody, the other embellishing it.
  24. Surviving examples of Greek music consist of what type of musical texture?
    monophonic
  25. A recitation of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey would have been accompanied by what kind of instrument?
    Lyre
  26. A lyre often accompanied what other type of art in Ancient Greece?
    Poetry.
  27. Define: "perfect melos"
    Term from Ancient Greece meaning instrumental melody, text, and stylized dance conceived as a whole.
  28. What is the Ancient Greek term for "instrumental melody, text, and stylized dance conceived as a whole"?
    Perfect melos
  29. What instrument was used by Romans in religious, state, and military ceremonies?
    Tuba - it was a long, straight, roman trumpet. Don't get confused with a normal tuba.
  30. Describe the "tuba" in ancient terms
    Used in Ancient Rome - a long, straight trumpet used in religious, state, and military ceremonies.
  31. Describe the "tibia"
    A Roman instrument, similar to the aulos of Greece, played in religous, theatrical, and military ceremonies.
  32. Which Roman instrument looks like a straight trumpet?
    Tuba
  33. Which Roman instrument is their version of the aulos?
    Tibia
  34. What is the earliest example of notated Greek music?
    Two fragments from plays by Euripides.
  35. Who was the earliest known composer in Greek history?
    Euripides
  36. Which Greek instrument is used in processions, sacred ceremonies, and theater?
    The kithara. It is a larger version of a lyre.
  37. Which instrument in Ancient Greece is the large version of a Lyre?
    Kithara
  38. Who is the earliest Greek music theorist?
    Aristoxenus
  39. Why is Aristoxenus famous?
    He was the first Greek music theorist.
  40. Who is considered the founder of Greek music theory?
    Pythagoras
  41. Why is Pythagoras important in music?
    He was considered the founder of Greek music theory.
  42. According to Plato, what were the two best harmoniai (modes)?
    Phrygian and Dorian
  43. Phrygian and Dorian are the most important educational harmoniai (modes) according to who?
    Plato.
  44. Define: "harmonia"
    Scale type or mode - associated with Ancient Greece
  45. The myth of the "harmony of the spheres," the unheard music produced by the revolutions of the planets was created by whom?
    Plato
  46. Plato created the myth that unheard music was produced by the planets. What did he call this?
    The "Harmony of the Spheres"
  47. Cleonides noted that in the diatonic genus, a perfect fourth, fifth, and octave could be subdivided into tones and semitones in a limited number of ways, which he called:
    "species".
  48. The word "species" in Ancient Greek music means what?
    The subdivision of tones within a given parameter (fourth, fifth, octave).
  49. Who was responsible with noting the different "species" of various intervals?
    Cleonides
  50. The Greek term for music as a performed art is:
    "melos".
  51. "Melos" is the Ancient Greek term for what?
    Music as a performed art.
  52. Both Plato and Aristotle stressed an equal balance between the following two disciplines in education:
    Music and gymnastics
  53. Which two Greek theorists stressed the balance of gymnastics and music?
    Plato and Aristotle.
  54. According to Boethius, the music of the universe is called:
    musica mundana
  55. What is "musica mundana"?
    Music of the universe
  56. What is "musica humana"?
    Music of the human body
  57. What is "musica instrumentalis"?
    Music of instruments.
  58. What is the Greek term for music of instruments?
    musica instrumentalis
  59. What is the Greek term for music of the human body?
    musica humana
  60. In the earliest notation, signs called "neumes" were placed above the text, indicating what?
    Melodic shape
  61. Melodic shape, in some of the earliest notations, were indicated by what?
    Neumes
  62. What century are the earliest surviving books of notated chant from?
    800's (9th Century)
  63. The ninth century (800's) was important for early chant music. Why?
    It was the first example of notation.
  64. What were "diastematic neumes"?
    Symbols above the text indicating intervals.
  65. In early chant music, intervals were notated using what?
    Diastematic neumes.
  66. The Western Church modeled its use of eight modes on a melodic classification first appearing in _______ chant.
    Byzantine
  67. Byzantine was important for the Western Church's interpretation of music. Why?
    Because the Western Church modeled its use of eight modes off of the melodic classification first appearing in Byzantine chant.
  68. A set of syllables used for sight singing chant was introduced by:
    Guido of Arezzo
  69. Guido of Arezzo is credited with two very big pedagogical techniques - what are they?
    Solfege syllables, and the Guidonian Hand
  70. In his treatise De Institutione Musica, Boethius borrows heavily from which civilization?
    Ancient Greece
  71. Who wrote the treatise "De Institutione Musica"?
    Boethius
  72. Boethius wrote a treatise that borrowed heavily from the Greeks. What was it called?
    "De Institutione Musica"
  73. What is the process of changing hexachords in the Medieval era called?
    Mutation
  74. What is "mutation"?
    In the Medieval era, it was the process of changing hexachords.
  75. There are three types of hexachords in the Medeival era - what are they?
    • C - "natural"
    • G - "hard"
    • F - "soft"
  76. Church modes are differentiated by:
    The arrangement of whole and half steps in relation to the "final" tone.
  77. The arrangement of whole steps and half steps in relation to the final tone create what category of scales?
    Church modes
  78. Define: "chant dialects"
    Distinct regional versions of chant
  79. Distinct regional versions of chants are called what?
    Chant dialects.
  80. Leaders of the early Christian church condemned what type of music?
    Instrumental music
  81. Who was the most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages?
    Boethius
  82. Why is Boethius important?
    In the Middle Ages, he was considered the most revered authority on music.
  83. Songs of the Milanese rite are known as ______ chant.
    Ambrosian chant
  84. Ambrosian chant comes from what region?
    Milan
  85. According to books of liturgical texts from the 700's (8th century), who is credited with standardizing chant repertory?
    St. Gregory
  86. St. Gregory is credited with what?
    Standardizing chant repertory in the 700's (8th century). That's why they call it Gregorian Chant
  87. Gregorian chant is taken from which two chant styles?
    Old Roman Chant and Frankish Chant
  88. Old Roman Chant and Frankish Chant combine into which genre?
    Gregorian Chant
  89. Staff notation with neumes did not convey _____.
    Rhythm
  90. What is "cantillation"?
    A system for chanting sacred texts in the Middle Ages.
  91. What was the system for chanting sacred texts in the Middle Ages called?
    "Cantillation"
  92. What was the name of the treatise, by Guido of Arezzo, that was a practical guide for singers that covered notes, intervals, scales, modes, melodic composition, and improvised polyphony?
    "Micrologus"
  93. What is "Micrologus"?
    Written by Guido of Arezzo, it is a practical guide for singers that covers a wide range of musical fundamentals.
  94. What is the book by Guido of Arezzo?
    "Micrologus"
  95. In Solesmes chant notation, the staff contains how many lines?
    4
  96. Who founded Solesmes notation?
    The Solesmes monks.
  97. The Solesmes monks created what?
    Solesmes notation
  98. When were Greek scale names applied to the church modes?
    Late 800's (9th Century)
  99. What is something important that happened in regards to modes in the 9th century (800's)?
    Greek scale names were applied to church modes.
  100. Proper chants are named according to their ______.
    function
  101. Texts for the Office are collected in the:
    "breviary"
  102. The "breviary" holds what function?
    It holds the texts for the Office
  103. A chant sung before and after the psalm:
    antiphon
  104. Define: antiphon
    A chant sung before and after the psalm
  105. There are two parts of a mass. Name them.
    Mass Ordinary and Mass Proper
  106. Define: Proper of the Mass (Mass Proper)
    the parts of the mass that vary day by day
  107. Define: Ordinary of the Mass (Mass Ordinary)
    Texts of the mass that does not change day to day
  108. Name some parts of the Mass Ordinary
    Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite missa est.

    Kill Gloria, cause she ain't dead in my establishment.
  109. The final syllable of "alleluia" is often extended by an effusive melisma called a:
    "jubilus"
  110. What is a "jubilus"?
    Melismatic extension of the final syllable of "Alleluia".
  111. A typical Church day in the Middle Ages consists of what two segments?
    The Office, and the Mass
  112. In a Mass service, the Greater Doxology is also known as the:
    "Gloria"
  113. What is another name for the "Gloria" in a Mass service?
    The Greater Doxology
  114. Early chant melodies reflect an attempt to do what?
    Reflect the shape of the text
  115. When were hymns used in a church day?
    The office
  116. Define: "hymn"
    A strophic type of sacred song performed by a choir in each of the Office services
  117. A series of eight services celebrated daily at specific times are known as:
    the Office
  118. Define: the Office
    A series of eight services celebrated daily at specific times in church
  119. What are "psalm tones"?
    Formulas for singing psalms in the Office
  120. What are the formulas for singing psalms in the Office?
    Psalm tones
  121. Ordinary chants are named according to their ______.
    Initial words.
  122. What are the two ways of naming chants in the church?
    • For Ordinary Chants - Initial words
    • For Proper Chants - Function
  123. Define: canticles
    Poetic passages from parts of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms
  124. What do you call poetic passages from parts of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms?
    Canticles
  125. The following manner of performance for chant is characterized by a soloist who alternates with the choir or congregation:
    Responsorial
  126. Define: responsorial performance
    Manner of performance for chant that is characterized by a soloist who alternates with the choir or congregation
  127. The longest chants in the liturgy are the:
    tracts
  128. Define: tracts
    The longest chants in the liturgy
  129. Define: trope
    Expansion of an existing chant through the addition of new words and/or music before the chant and often between phrases
  130. What is the expansion of an existing chant through the addition of new words and/or music before the chant and often between phrases?
    Trope
  131. An Office psalm or canticle is preceded and followed by what?
    Antiphon
  132. The antiphon goes where in the order of the Office?
    Preceding and following the psalm or canticle
  133. The earliest surviving music drama not attached to the liturgy was composed by whom?
    Hildegard of Bingen
  134. Hildegard of Bingen created the earliest surviving what?
    Music drama not attached to the liturgy
  135. The following Office service takes place between midnight and sunrise:
    "Matins"
  136. Chants for the Mass are collected in the:
    "Gradual"
  137. The Gradual is a collection for what?
    The Chants for the Mass
  138. The Mass evolved from what in the Bible?
    The Last Supper
  139. What is "Liber Usualis"?
    A book that contains the most frequently used texts and chants for the mass and office.
  140. What book contains the most frequently used texts and chants for the mass and office?
    Liber Usualis
  141. Name the three types of syllable/music associations:
    • Syllabic - all syllables have a single note
    • Neumatic - syllables have 1-6 notes
    • Melismatic - syllables have long melodies
  142. The sung portions of the Mass Ordinary were originally performed by:
    The congregation
  143. A formula of praise to the Trinity that follows the last verse of the psalm is called:
    Lesser Doxology
  144. Define: Lesser Doxology
    Formula of praise to the Trinity that follows the last verse of the psalm
  145. Tropes that take the form of dialogue or an elaborate play are called:
    liturgical drama
  146. Define: Liturgical drama
    Tropes that take the form of dialogue or an elaborate play
  147. Tropes are basically what...?
    Extended, elaborated chants.
  148. What is the term for an extended chant?
    Trope
  149. Type of medieval harp that originated in the British isles?
    Psaltery
  150. What is a psaltery?
    Type of medieval harp that originated in the British Isles
  151. A sacred Italian monophonic song was known as a ______.
    lauda.
  152. What is a lauda?
    A sacred Italin monophonic song in the Medeival age.
  153. When did churches begin to utilize organs?
    1100
  154. In 1100, what did churches change instrumentally?
    Added organs. By 1300, most cathedrals had them.
  155. What is the name of the wind instrument of the Middle Ages made of wood or ivory, without keys?
    Transverse flute
  156. What is a transverse flute?
    Medieval wind instrument similar to the modern flute but made of wood or ivory, no keys, only holes.
  157. Who composed the play "Jeu de Robin et de Marion"?
    Adam de la Halle
  158. Adam de la Halle was a trouvere famous for composing which musical play?
    "Jeu de Robin et de Marion"
  159. Poet composers of Southern France were known as:
    Troubadours
  160. What is the difference between troubadours and trouveres?
    Troubadours were from the South of France, Trouveres were from the North of France
  161. The Song of the Nibelungs is an example of what?
    An epic
  162. A type of Latin song akin to the sequence but without paired phrases is the:
    conductus
  163. The only known song by a trobairitz to survive with music is:
    "A chantar"
  164. What is significant about "A Chantar"?
    It is the only known song by a trobairitz to survive with music.
  165. The most common melodic form of the Minnelieder was:
    AAB
  166. Who were the Minnelieder?
    Poet-composers of Germany (very much like troubadours and trouveres).
  167. The carole is not just a singing genre, but a _____ one too.
    dancing
  168. The most popular social dance in France from the 1100's - 1300's was?
    Carole
  169. What are the two popular French dance music genres of the Middle Ages?
    • Carole
    • Estampie
  170. The istampita was a Italian version of which French dance music genre?
    Estampie
  171. All French estampies are in ____ meter.
    triple
  172. French dance music in triple meter
    Estampie
  173. What is the difference between "Minnelieder" and "Minnesinger"?
    • Minnesinger is the PERSON
    • Minnelieder are the SONGS
  174. Knightly poet musicians of Germany who flourished between 1100's and 1300's are known as:
    Minnesinger
  175. Medieval musical plays were built around what?
    Narrative pastoral songs.
  176. Narrative pastoral songs lent a hand to what medieval genre?
    Medieval musical plays
  177. The principal medieval bowed instrument was the:
    vielle
  178. What is a vielle?
    The principal medieval bowed instrument - predecessor to the violin.
  179. By the 1200's, the following term denoted a specialized musician:
    Minstrel
  180. What is a minstrel?
    A specialized musician
  181. Melodies in troubadour and trouvere songs move mostly by steps and occasional skips of a ______.
    Third.
  182. In what genre did melodies move mostly by steps and occasional skips of a third?
    Troubadour and trouvere songs
  183. What were the Cantigas de Santa Maria?
    A collection of more than 400 songs in Galican-Portuguese in honor of the Virgin Mary.
  184. A collection of more than 400 songs in Gaican-Portuguese in honor of the Virgin Mary were collected in the:
    Cantigas de Santa Maria
  185. Trouvere and troubadour songs are preserved in manuscript anthologies known as:
    chansonniers
  186. Define: chansonniers
    Song books for trouveres and troubadours.
  187. What are goliard songs?
    Latin songs dating from the late 900s to early 1200's associated with wandering students and clerics.
  188. Latin songs dating from the late tenth through the early 13th centuries and associated with wandering students and clerics are known as:
    goliard songs
  189. The most famous "chanson de geste" is:
    "Song of Roland"
  190. What is the significance of "Song of Roland"?
    It is the most famous chanson de geste
  191. Traveling performers who made their living performing tricks, telling stories, and playing music were called:
    jongleurs
  192. Define: jongleurs
    Traveling performers who made their living performing tricks, telling stories, and playing music
  193. A type of Latin song characterized by rhymed poetry that usually follows a regular pattern of accents is a:
    versus
  194. What are the two types of Latin poetry songs?
    Versus and conductus
  195. A medieval double reed instrument similar to the oboe is _____.
    a shawm.
  196. Define: shawm
    Medieval double reed instrument similar to the oboe
  197. A smaller type of organ that could be carried or suspended around the neck is known as a:
    portative organ
  198. Define: portative organ
    A smaller type of organ that could be carried or suspended around the neck
  199. What are the two types of organs, and define them?
    • Portative - portable organ
    • Positive - normal organ in the church
  200. What was the main secular vernacular genre of Spain in the 1500's?
    Villancico
  201. Define: villancico
    The main secular vernacular genre of 16th century Spain.
  202. What language were the Cantigas de Santa Maria written in?
    Galician-Portuguese
  203. Galician-Portuguese is the language for what famous collection of songs?
    Cantigas de Santa Maria
  204. What were "The Triumphs of Oriana"?
    A collection of madrigals in honor of Queen Elizabeth.
  205. What is the name of the collection of madrigals made in honor of Queen Elizabeth?
    The Triumphs of Oriana.
  206. What features helped create English music of the 13th century?
    • 1. Voice exchange
    • 2. Canons
    • 3. Preference for 6/3 chords.
  207. What country's music of the 13th century is characterized by voice exchange, canons, and a preference for 6/3 chords?
    England
  208. Define: frottola
    Genre of folk-like homophonic secular song in Italy
  209. What is the genre of folk-like homophonic secular song in Italy?
    frottola
  210. What was the first mass to be composed by a single composer (Guillame de Machaut)?
    Messe de Nostre Dame
  211. Who composed Messe de Nostre Dame, and why is that significant?
    Guillame de Machaut - because it was the first mass to be composed by a single composer.
  212. Describe the genre: conductus
    • 1. Polyphonic
    • 2. Text was rhymed, metrical poetry
    • 3. Melisma preceded and followed phrases
    • 4. The tenor voice had the same rhythmic speed as the upper voices
    • 5. It died out around 1250
  213. Define: consort
    Any combination of instruments in a small group
  214. What is a combination of instruments in a small group?
    Consort
  215. The vielle has how many strings:
    5
  216. Secular songs in Germany were influenced by ______.
    Troubadours/trouveres
  217. Musical instruments of the 1300's were divided how?
    High and low by DYNAMICS, not pitch.
  218. Who was Francesco Landini?
    A blind composer known for his ballate
  219. Who was the blind composer known for his famous ballate?
    Francesco Landini
  220. Italian Renaissance musicians were most likely trained where?
    France, the Netherlands, or Flanders
  221. What role did France, The Netherlands, and Flanders play in Renaissance music?
    They held the main training centers for musicians of the time period.
  222. What is "Roman de Fauvel"?
    A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church of France.
  223. What is the name of the allegorical narrative poem in the 1300s that used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the French Church?
    Roman de Fauvel
  224. By the middle of the 16th century, Italian madrigals were written for how many voices?
    Five or more.
  225. What is the Italian genre derived from French songs?
    Canzona
  226. Define: canzona
    Italian genre derived from French songs
  227. The use of harmonic thirds and sixths is most common in the polyphony of what country in the Middle Ages?
    England
  228. England used which harmonies the most in their polyphony?
    3rds and 6ths
  229. What is "parallel organum"?
    An early form of polyphony in which two voices move in parallel motion.
  230. What is the early form of polyphony in which two voices move in parallel motion?
    Parallel organum
  231. In English polyphony, a perpetual canon or round at the unison is called a ______.
    Rota.
  232. Define: "rota"
    In English polyphony, a perpetual canon or round at the unison
  233. How did the genre of the motet develop?
    The addition of newly written words for the upper voices of discant clausulae
  234. Motets developed from which musical idea?
    Discant clausulae
  235. The addition of newly written words for the upper voices of discant clausulae resulted in the development of which genre?
    Motet
  236. In English polyphony, an elaborate form of voice exchange in which two or three phrases are first sung simultaneously, and then by each voice in turn is known as _________.
    Rondellus
  237. Define: rondellus
    In English polyphony, an elaborate form of voice exchange in which two or three phrases are first sung simultaneously, and then by each voice in turn
  238. Who's treatise names Leoninus and Perotinus as the two creators of Notre Dame polyphony?
    Anonymous IV's Treatise
  239. Anonymous IV treatise names two creators of Notre Dame polyphony. Who are they?
    Leoninus and Perotinus
  240. Relative durations signified by note shapes were first introduced by Franco of Colognein his treatise:
    Ars cantus mensurabilis
  241. Who wrote "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"?
    Franco of Cologne
  242. Why is Franco of Cologne important?
    He was the first to introduce relative durations signified by note shapes in his treatise "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"
  243. A polyphonic setting in which all four voices sing the text together in essentially the same rhythm is called a polyphonic ________.
    conductus.
  244. What is a polyphonic conductus?
    A polyphonic setting in which all four voices sing the text together in essentially the same rhythm
  245. The earliest surviving manuscripts of Notre Dame polyphony date from which century?
    13th century (1200's)
  246. Where was the first polyphony to be read from notation rather than improvised created?
    Paris
  247. Paris was an important place for polyphony - why?
    It holds the first created polyphony read from NOTATION
  248. According to Anonymous IV treatise, the Magnus liber organi was compiled by whom?
    Leoninus
  249. Leoninus wrote which book in Notre Dame?
    Magnus Liber Organi
  250. In Aquitanian polyphony, the lower voice, responsible for the melody, is called the:
    tenor
  251. What is the "tenor" according to Aquitanian polyphony?
    The lower voice responsible for the melody
  252. The basic time unit in the rhythmic modes is known as:
    tempus
  253. Define: tempus
    The basic time unit in the rhythmic modes
  254. The treatise Musica enchiriadias provides instructions for avoiding the following interval:
    augmented fourth (tritone)
  255. Instructions for avoiding the tritone in part-writing were first written in which treatise?
    Musica Enchiriadias
  256. What is the largest collection of notated organal voices?
    The Winchester Troper
  257. Define: The Winchester Troper
    the largest collection of notated organal voices
  258. A system of notated duration developed by musicians at Notre Dame was described in a 13th century treatise attributed to whom?
    Johannes de Garlandia
  259. Who is Johannes de Garlandia?
    The person responsible for developing a system of notated duration in Notre Dame in the 1200's.
  260. Four important names in Notre Dame polyphony - who are they?
    • Anonymous IV - kind of the historian
    • Leoninus - Wrote some of the poetry/organum
    • Perotinus - Wrote some organum too
    • Johannes de Garlandia - created duration notation
  261. What are "colores"?
    Melodic formulas in which the duplum is dependent
  262. What are melodic formulas in which the duplum is dependent?
    "Colores"
  263. After the mid-______ century, composers began to draw motet tenor melodies from sources other than Notre Dame clausula.
    thirteenth (1200's)
  264. When did the genre of motet come into it's own (original content)?
    1250ish
  265. Rules for composing in free organum are in which treatise?
    "Ad Organum Faciendum"
  266. What was in the "Ad Organum Faciendum"?
    Rules for composing in free organum
  267. A self-contained section of organum, setting a word or syllable from the chant and closing with a cadence is known as a ________.
    "clausula"
  268. Define: "clausula"
    A self-contained section of organum, setting a word or syllable from the chant and closing with a cadence
  269. A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm is _________ style.
    "discant"
  270. What is discant style?
    A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm
  271. Define: organum style vs. discant style
    Organum style - tenor voice less active, duplum sings elaborate embellishment over the tenor

    Discant style - both voices move in modal rhythm
  272. In Aquitanian polyphony, discant is described as:
    "both parts moving at the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice"
  273. What is the musical style consisting of two parts moving at the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice?
    Discant style
  274. Define: organum
    Medieval genre in which two or more voices are singing different notes according to given rules
  275. What is the Medieval genre in which two or more voices are singing different notes according to given rules?
    Organum
  276. Rhythmic modes are indicated by signs called:
    ligatures
  277. Define: ligatures
    Signs that indicated rhythmic modes
  278. In an isorhythmic motet, the repeating melodic segment is called the:
    "color"
  279. What is "color" in regards to motet?
    In isorhythmic motets, it is the repeating melodic segment
  280. Chromatic alterations employed to produce a more melodic line or to avoid sounding a tritone were known as:
    "musica ficta"
  281. What is "musica ficta"?
    Chromatic alterations employed to produce a more melodic line or to avoid sounding a tritone
  282. What is the first piece composed by a single composer?
    Messe de Nostre Dame
  283. What is significant about the Messe de Nostre Dame?
    It was the first piece composed by a single composer
  284. The leading composer of the ballata was:
    Francesco Landini
  285. Francesco Landini was the leading composer of the _______ genre. He was also very ______. And he was from _______.
    ballata. blind. Italy.
  286. The Landini cadence is:
    • Tenor voice goes down by step
    • Lower voice descends to lower neighbor, then skips up a third
    • (goes down to go up)
  287. Who coined "Ars Subtilior"?
    Phillipus de Caserta
  288. Who was Phillipus de Caserta?
    He coined the phrase "Ars Subtilior"
  289. The form of each stanza of a ballade is:
    aabC
  290. aabC is the form of which genre?
    Ballade
  291. What is the Squarcialupi Codex?
    The most abundant source of Italian secular polyphony.
  292. What is the most abundant source of Italian secular polyphony?
    The Squarcialupi Codex
  293. Ars Subtilior music was intended to be performed by:
    professionals
  294. The following treatise contains keyboard versions of ballades by Machaut and ballate and madrigals composed by Landini:
    The Robertsbridge Codex
  295. The leading composer of the French Ars Nova was:
    Guillame de Machaut
  296. Guillame de Machaut was important. Why?
    He was the leading composer of the French Ars Nova - also the first composer to write down his thoughts on music writing and first like.. legit composer, you know?
  297. Who is credited with the establishment of the Ars Nova style?
    Phillipe de Vitry
  298. Who is Phillipe de Vitry?
    The man who is credited with the establishment of the Ars Nova style.
  299. What is hocketing?
    A rhythmic technique in which two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings.
  300. What is the rhythmic technique in which two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings?
    Hocketing
  301. What is a polyphonic song of the French Ars Nova?
    Chanson
  302. What is a chanson?
    A polyphonic song of the French Ars Nova
  303. The use of coloration in the tenor in Ars Nova music indicates:
    Change of meter
  304. How did they indicate meter change in Ars Nova music?
    use of coloration in the tenor
  305. A formes fixes that contains only one stanza framed by a refrain that includes both sections of music used for the stanza is a:
    Rondeau
  306. What is a rondeau?
    A formes fixes that contains only one stanza framed by a refrain that includes both sections of music used for the stanza
  307. Who composed the earliest works in the Ars Nova style?
    Phillipe de Vitry
  308. What is the rhythmic device in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm?
    Isorhythm
  309. What is isorhythm?
    the rhythmic device in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm
  310. A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church was:
    Roman de Fauvel
  311. What is "Roman de Fauvel"?
    A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church
  312. What is the name of the Italian song form that uses a popular-style melody in strict canon?
    Caccia
  313. What is caccia?
    the Italian song form that uses a popular-style melody in strict canon
  314. In an isorhythmic motet, the repeating rhythmic unit is called the:
    "talea"
  315. What is a "talea"?A
    In an isorhythmic motet, it is the repeating rhythmic unit
  316. A 14th century song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment is called a:
    Madrigal
  317. The instrument distinctions "haut" and "bas" referred to the instrument's:
    volume

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