Music History Review (more concise)
Card Set Information
Music History Review (more concise)
Music History Review more concise
Music History Review (more concise)
The earliest known system for musical notation is credited to the:
The Babylonians are credited for what in music history?
Having the earliest known system for musical notation. (1800 B.C.E.)
What are the two Perfect Systems in Ancient Greek Music?
Lesser Perfect System and Greater Perfect System. These were the systems of tetrachords. The LPS spanned an octave and a fourth. The GPS spanned two octaves.
Tetrachords were a hallmark of what civilizaton?
The Lesser Perfect System combined tetrachords to complete:
an octave plus a fourth.
The Greater Perfect System combined tetrachords to complete:
Aristocenus remarked that the following genre of tetrachord was the oldest and most natural:
Explain what Greek Tetrachords were like.
A combination of four notes spanning a fourth, of which the two middle notes indicated the genre.
Describe the three genres of tetrachords from Ancient Greece
Diatonic - two middle notes = whole step
Chromatic - two middle notes = half step
Enharmonic - two middle notes = quarter step
The following instrument was used in the worship of Dionysus, god of fertility and wine:
The aulos was an instrument used in the worship of which god in Ancient greece?
The following instrument was used in worship of Apollo:
The lyre was used in the worship for which god in Ancient Greece?
Aristotle believed that music imitated ethos through the choice of which two musical features?
Scale-type and rhythm.
Scale-type and rhythm were important to Aristotle. Why?
He believed that these two features of music impacted a person's ethos.
The earliest composer known by name is:
Enhueduanna, of Ancient Mesopotamia
Who was Enhueduanna?
The first composer known by name in history, from Ancient Mesopotamia.
Evidence of pre-historic musical cultures can be found how?
Surviving instruments, and visual images of musicians and instruments.
a single, unaccompanied melodic line
What type of music consists of a single, unaccompanied melodic line?
two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody
multiple voices moving together in the same rhythm
Multiple voices moving, one singing melody, the other embellishing it.
Surviving examples of Greek music consist of what type of musical texture?
A recitation of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey would have been accompanied by what kind of instrument?
A lyre often accompanied what other type of art in Ancient Greece?
Define: "perfect melos"
Term from Ancient Greece meaning instrumental melody, text, and stylized dance conceived as a whole.
What is the Ancient Greek term for "instrumental melody, text, and stylized dance conceived as a whole"?
What instrument was used by Romans in religious, state, and military ceremonies?
Tuba - it was a long, straight, roman trumpet. Don't get confused with a normal tuba.
Describe the "tuba" in ancient terms
Used in Ancient Rome - a long, straight trumpet used in religious, state, and military ceremonies.
Describe the "tibia"
A Roman instrument, similar to the aulos of Greece, played in religous, theatrical, and military ceremonies.
Which Roman instrument looks like a straight trumpet?
Which Roman instrument is their version of the aulos?
What is the earliest example of notated Greek music?
Two fragments from plays by Euripides.
Who was the earliest known composer in Greek history?
Which Greek instrument is used in processions, sacred ceremonies, and theater?
The kithara. It is a larger version of a lyre.
Which instrument in Ancient Greece is the large version of a Lyre?
Who is the earliest Greek music theorist?
Why is Aristoxenus famous?
He was the first Greek music theorist.
Who is considered the founder of Greek music theory?
Why is Pythagoras important in music?
He was considered the founder of Greek music theory.
According to Plato, what were the two best harmoniai (modes)?
Phrygian and Dorian
Phrygian and Dorian are the most important educational harmoniai (modes) according to who?
Scale type or mode - associated with Ancient Greece
The myth of the "harmony of the spheres," the unheard music produced by the revolutions of the planets was created by whom?
Plato created the myth that unheard music was produced by the planets. What did he call this?
The "Harmony of the Spheres"
Cleonides noted that in the diatonic genus, a perfect fourth, fifth, and octave could be subdivided into tones and semitones in a limited number of ways, which he called:
The word "species" in Ancient Greek music means what?
The subdivision of tones within a given parameter (fourth, fifth, octave).
Who was responsible with noting the different "species" of various intervals?
The Greek term for music as a performed art is:
"Melos" is the Ancient Greek term for what?
Music as a performed art.
Both Plato and Aristotle stressed an equal balance between the following two disciplines in education:
Music and gymnastics
Which two Greek theorists stressed the balance of gymnastics and music?
Plato and Aristotle.
According to Boethius, the music of the universe is called:
What is "musica mundana"?
Music of the universe
What is "musica humana"?
Music of the human body
What is "musica instrumentalis"?
Music of instruments.
What is the Greek term for music of instruments?
What is the Greek term for music of the human body?
In the earliest notation, signs called "neumes" were placed above the text, indicating what?
Melodic shape, in some of the earliest notations, were indicated by what?
What century are the earliest surviving books of notated chant from?
800's (9th Century)
The ninth century (800's) was important for early chant music. Why?
It was the first example of
What were "diastematic neumes"?
Symbols above the text indicating
In early chant music, intervals were notated using what?
The Western Church modeled its use of eight modes on a melodic classification first appearing in _______ chant.
Byzantine was important for the Western Church's interpretation of music. Why?
Because the Western Church modeled its use of eight modes off of the melodic classification first appearing in Byzantine chant.
A set of syllables used for sight singing chant was introduced by:
Guido of Arezzo
Guido of Arezzo is credited with two very big pedagogical techniques - what are they?
Solfege syllables, and the Guidonian Hand
In his treatise De Institutione Musica, Boethius borrows heavily from which civilization?
Who wrote the treatise "De Institutione Musica"?
Boethius wrote a treatise that borrowed heavily from the Greeks. What was it called?
"De Institutione Musica"
What is the process of changing hexachords in the Medieval era called?
What is "mutation"?
In the Medieval era, it was the process of changing hexachords.
There are three types of hexachords in the Medeival era - what are they?
C - "natural"
G - "hard"
F - "soft"
Church modes are differentiated by:
The arrangement of whole and half steps in relation to the "final" tone.
The arrangement of whole steps and half steps in relation to the final tone create what category of scales?
Define: "chant dialects"
Distinct regional versions of chant
Distinct regional versions of chants are called what?
Leaders of the early Christian church condemned what type of music?
Who was the most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages?
Why is Boethius important?
In the Middle Ages, he was considered the most revered authority on music.
Songs of the Milanese rite are known as ______ chant.
Ambrosian chant comes from what region?
According to books of liturgical texts from the 700's (8th century), who is credited with standardizing chant repertory?
St. Gregory is credited with what?
Standardizing chant repertory in the 700's (8th century). That's why they call it Gregorian Chant
Gregorian chant is taken from which two chant styles?
Old Roman Chant and Frankish Chant
Old Roman Chant and Frankish Chant combine into which genre?
Staff notation with neumes did not convey _____.
What is "cantillation"?
A system for chanting sacred texts in the Middle Ages.
What was the system for chanting sacred texts in the Middle Ages called?
What was the name of the treatise, by Guido of Arezzo, that was a practical guide for singers that covered notes, intervals, scales, modes, melodic composition, and improvised polyphony?
What is "Micrologus"?
Written by Guido of Arezzo, it is a practical guide for singers that covers a wide range of musical fundamentals.
What is the book by Guido of Arezzo?
In Solesmes chant notation, the staff contains how many lines?
Who founded Solesmes notation?
The Solesmes monks.
The Solesmes monks created what?
When were Greek scale names applied to the church modes?
Late 800's (9th Century)
What is something important that happened in regards to modes in the 9th century (800's)?
Greek scale names were applied to church modes.
Proper chants are named according to their ______.
Texts for the Office are collected in the:
The "breviary" holds what function?
It holds the texts for the Office
A chant sung before and after the psalm:
A chant sung before and after the psalm
There are two parts of a mass. Name them.
Mass Ordinary and Mass Proper
Define: Proper of the Mass (Mass Proper)
the parts of the mass that vary day by day
Define: Ordinary of the Mass (Mass Ordinary)
Texts of the mass that does not change day to day
Name some parts of the Mass Ordinary
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite missa est.
Kill Gloria, cause she ain't dead in my establishment.
The final syllable of "alleluia" is often extended by an effusive melisma called a:
What is a "jubilus"?
Melismatic extension of the final syllable of "Alleluia".
A typical Church day in the Middle Ages consists of what two segments?
The Office, and the Mass
In a Mass service, the Greater Doxology is also known as the:
What is another name for the "Gloria" in a Mass service?
The Greater Doxology
Early chant melodies reflect an attempt to do what?
Reflect the shape of the text
When were hymns used in a church day?
A strophic type of sacred song performed by a choir in each of the Office services
A series of eight services celebrated daily at specific times are known as:
Define: the Office
A series of eight services celebrated daily at specific times in church
What are "psalm tones"?
Formulas for singing psalms in the Office
What are the formulas for singing psalms in the Office?
Ordinary chants are named according to their ______.
What are the two ways of naming chants in the church?
For Ordinary Chants - Initial words
For Proper Chants - Function
Poetic passages from parts of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms
What do you call poetic passages from parts of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms?
The following manner of performance for chant is characterized by a soloist who alternates with the choir or congregation:
Define: responsorial performance
Manner of performance for chant that is characterized by a soloist who alternates with the choir or congregation
The longest chants in the liturgy are the:
The longest chants in the liturgy
Expansion of an existing chant through the addition of new words and/or music before the chant and often between phrases
What is the expansion of an existing chant through the addition of new words and/or music before the chant and often between phrases?
An Office psalm or canticle is preceded and followed by what?
The antiphon goes where in the order of the Office?
Preceding and following the psalm or canticle
The earliest surviving music drama not attached to the liturgy was composed by whom?
Hildegard of Bingen
Hildegard of Bingen created the earliest surviving what?
Music drama not attached to the liturgy
The following Office service takes place between midnight and sunrise:
Chants for the Mass are collected in the:
The Gradual is a collection for what?
The Chants for the Mass
The Mass evolved from what in the Bible?
The Last Supper
What is "Liber Usualis"?
A book that contains the most frequently used texts and chants for the mass and office.
What book contains the most frequently used texts and chants for the mass and office?
Name the three types of syllable/music associations:
Syllabic - all syllables have a single note
Neumatic - syllables have 1-6 notes
Melismatic - syllables have long melodies
The sung portions of the Mass Ordinary were originally performed by:
A formula of praise to the Trinity that follows the last verse of the psalm is called:
Define: Lesser Doxology
Formula of praise to the Trinity that follows the last verse of the psalm
Tropes that take the form of dialogue or an elaborate play are called:
Define: Liturgical drama
Tropes that take the form of dialogue or an elaborate play
Tropes are basically what...?
Extended, elaborated chants.
What is the term for an extended chant?
Type of medieval harp that originated in the British isles?
What is a psaltery?
Type of medieval harp that originated in the British Isles
A sacred Italian monophonic song was known as a ______.
What is a lauda?
A sacred Italin monophonic song in the Medeival age.
When did churches begin to utilize organs?
In 1100, what did churches change instrumentally?
Added organs. By 1300, most cathedrals had them.
What is the name of the wind instrument of the Middle Ages made of wood or ivory, without keys?
What is a transverse flute?
Medieval wind instrument similar to the modern flute but made of wood or ivory, no keys, only holes.
Who composed the play "Jeu de Robin et de Marion"?
Adam de la Halle
Adam de la Halle was a trouvere famous for composing which musical play?
"Jeu de Robin et de Marion"
Poet composers of Southern France were known as:
What is the difference between troubadours and trouveres?
Troubadours were from the South of France, Trouveres were from the North of France
The Song of the Nibelungs is an example of what?
A type of Latin song akin to the sequence but without paired phrases is the:
The only known song by a trobairitz to survive with music is:
What is significant about "A Chantar"?
It is the only known song by a trobairitz to survive with music.
The most common melodic form of the Minnelieder was:
Who were the Minnelieder?
Poet-composers of Germany (very much like troubadours and trouveres).
The carole is not just a singing genre, but a _____ one too.
The most popular social dance in France from the 1100's - 1300's was?
What are the two popular French dance music genres of the Middle Ages?
The istampita was a Italian version of which French dance music genre?
All French estampies are in ____ meter.
French dance music in triple meter
What is the difference between "Minnelieder" and "Minnesinger"?
Minnesinger is the PERSON
Minnelieder are the SONGS
Knightly poet musicians of Germany who flourished between 1100's and 1300's are known as:
Medieval musical plays were built around what?
Narrative pastoral songs.
Narrative pastoral songs lent a hand to what medieval genre?
Medieval musical plays
The principal medieval bowed instrument was the:
What is a vielle?
The principal medieval bowed instrument - predecessor to the violin.
By the 1200's, the following term denoted a specialized musician:
What is a minstrel?
A specialized musician
Melodies in troubadour and trouvere songs move mostly by steps and occasional skips of a ______.
In what genre did melodies move mostly by steps and occasional skips of a third?
Troubadour and trouvere songs
What were the Cantigas de Santa Maria?
A collection of more than 400 songs in Galican-Portuguese in honor of the Virgin Mary.
A collection of more than 400 songs in Gaican-Portuguese in honor of the Virgin Mary were collected in the:
Cantigas de Santa Maria
Trouvere and troubadour songs are preserved in manuscript anthologies known as:
Song books for trouveres and troubadours.
What are goliard songs?
Latin songs dating from the late 900s to early 1200's associated with wandering students and clerics.
Latin songs dating from the late tenth through the early 13th centuries and associated with wandering students and clerics are known as:
The most famous "chanson de geste" is:
"Song of Roland"
What is the significance of "Song of Roland"?
It is the most famous
chanson de geste
Traveling performers who made their living performing tricks, telling stories, and playing music were called:
Traveling performers who made their living performing tricks, telling stories, and playing music
A type of Latin song characterized by rhymed poetry that usually follows a regular pattern of accents is a:
What are the two types of Latin poetry songs?
Versus and conductus
A medieval double reed instrument similar to the oboe is _____.
Medieval double reed instrument similar to the oboe
A smaller type of organ that could be carried or suspended around the neck is known as a:
Define: portative organ
A smaller type of organ that could be carried or suspended around the neck
What are the two types of organs, and define them?
Portative - portable organ
Positive - normal organ in the church
What was the main secular vernacular genre of Spain in the 1500's?
The main secular vernacular genre of 16th century Spain.
What language were the Cantigas de Santa Maria written in?
Galician-Portuguese is the language for what famous collection of songs?
Cantigas de Santa Maria
What were "The Triumphs of Oriana"?
A collection of madrigals in honor of Queen Elizabeth.
What is the name of the collection of madrigals made in honor of Queen Elizabeth?
The Triumphs of Oriana.
What features helped create English music of the 13th century?
1. Voice exchange
3. Preference for 6/3 chords.
What country's music of the 13th century is characterized by voice exchange, canons, and a preference for 6/3 chords?
Genre of folk-like homophonic secular song in Italy
What is the genre of folk-like homophonic secular song in Italy?
What was the first mass to be composed by a single composer (Guillame de Machaut)?
Messe de Nostre Dame
Who composed Messe de Nostre Dame, and why is that significant?
Guillame de Machaut - because it was the first mass to be composed by a single composer.
Describe the genre: conductus
2. Text was rhymed, metrical poetry
3. Melisma preceded and followed phrases
4. The tenor voice had the same rhythmic speed as the upper voices
5. It died out around 1250
Any combination of instruments in a small group
What is a combination of instruments in a small group?
The vielle has how many strings:
Secular songs in Germany were influenced by ______.
Musical instruments of the 1300's were divided how?
High and low by DYNAMICS, not pitch.
Who was Francesco Landini?
A blind composer known for his ballate
Who was the blind composer known for his famous ballate?
Italian Renaissance musicians were most likely trained where?
France, the Netherlands, or Flanders
What role did France, The Netherlands, and Flanders play in Renaissance music?
They held the main training centers for musicians of the time period.
What is "Roman de Fauvel"?
A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church of France.
What is the name of the allegorical narrative poem in the 1300s that used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the French Church?
Roman de Fauvel
By the middle of the 16th century, Italian madrigals were written for how many voices?
Five or more.
What is the Italian genre derived from French songs?
Italian genre derived from French songs
The use of harmonic thirds and sixths is most common in the polyphony of what country in the Middle Ages?
England used which harmonies the most in their polyphony?
3rds and 6ths
What is "parallel organum"?
An early form of polyphony in which two voices move in parallel motion.
What is the early form of polyphony in which two voices move in parallel motion?
In English polyphony, a perpetual canon or round at the unison is called a ______.
In English polyphony, a perpetual canon or round at the unison
How did the genre of the motet develop?
The addition of newly written words for the upper voices of discant clausulae
Motets developed from which musical idea?
The addition of newly written words for the upper voices of discant clausulae resulted in the development of which genre?
In English polyphony, an elaborate form of voice exchange in which two or three phrases are first sung simultaneously, and then by each voice in turn is known as _________.
In English polyphony, an elaborate form of voice exchange in which two or three phrases are first sung simultaneously, and then by each voice in turn
Who's treatise names Leoninus and Perotinus as the two creators of Notre Dame polyphony?
Anonymous IV's Treatise
Anonymous IV treatise names two creators of Notre Dame polyphony. Who are they?
Leoninus and Perotinus
Relative durations signified by note shapes were first introduced by Franco of Colognein his treatise:
Ars cantus mensurabilis
Who wrote "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"?
Franco of Cologne
Why is Franco of Cologne important?
He was the first to introduce relative durations signified by note shapes in his treatise "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis"
A polyphonic setting in which all four voices sing the text together in essentially the same rhythm is called a polyphonic ________.
What is a polyphonic conductus?
A polyphonic setting in which all four voices sing the text together in essentially the same rhythm
The earliest surviving manuscripts of Notre Dame polyphony date from which century?
13th century (1200's)
Where was the first polyphony to be read from notation rather than improvised created?
Paris was an important place for polyphony - why?
It holds the first created polyphony read from NOTATION
According to Anonymous IV treatise, the Magnus liber organi was compiled by whom?
Leoninus wrote which book in Notre Dame?
Magnus Liber Organi
In Aquitanian polyphony, the lower voice, responsible for the melody, is called the:
What is the "tenor" according to Aquitanian polyphony?
The lower voice responsible for the melody
The basic time unit in the rhythmic modes is known as:
The basic time unit in the rhythmic modes
The treatise Musica enchiriadias provides instructions for avoiding the following interval:
augmented fourth (tritone)
Instructions for avoiding the tritone in part-writing were first written in which treatise?
What is the largest collection of notated organal voices?
The Winchester Troper
Define: The Winchester Troper
the largest collection of notated organal voices
A system of notated duration developed by musicians at Notre Dame was described in a 13th century treatise attributed to whom?
Johannes de Garlandia
Who is Johannes de Garlandia?
The person responsible for developing a system of notated duration in Notre Dame in the 1200's.
Four important names in Notre Dame polyphony - who are they?
Anonymous IV - kind of the historian
Leoninus - Wrote some of the poetry/organum
Perotinus - Wrote some organum too
Johannes de Garlandia - created duration notation
What are "colores"?
Melodic formulas in which the duplum is dependent
What are melodic formulas in which the duplum is dependent?
After the mid-______ century, composers began to draw motet tenor melodies from sources other than Notre Dame clausula.
When did the genre of motet come into it's own (original content)?
Rules for composing in free organum are in which treatise?
"Ad Organum Faciendum"
What was in the "Ad Organum Faciendum"?
Rules for composing in free organum
A self-contained section of organum, setting a word or syllable from the chant and closing with a cadence is known as a ________.
A self-contained section of organum, setting a word or syllable from the chant and closing with a cadence
A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm is _________ style.
What is discant style?
A style of organum in which both voices move in modal rhythm
Define: organum style vs. discant style
Organum style - tenor voice less active, duplum sings elaborate embellishment over the tenor
Discant style - both voices move in modal rhythm
In Aquitanian polyphony, discant is described as:
"both parts moving at the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice"
What is the musical style consisting of two parts moving at the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice?
Medieval genre in which two or more voices are singing different notes according to given rules
What is the Medieval genre in which two or more voices are singing different notes according to given rules?
Rhythmic modes are indicated by signs called:
Signs that indicated rhythmic modes
In an isorhythmic motet, the repeating melodic segment is called the:
What is "color" in regards to motet?
In isorhythmic motets, it is the repeating melodic segment
Chromatic alterations employed to produce a more melodic line or to avoid sounding a tritone were known as:
What is "musica ficta"?
Chromatic alterations employed to produce a more melodic line or to avoid sounding a tritone
What is the first piece composed by a single composer?
Messe de Nostre Dame
What is significant about the Messe de Nostre Dame?
It was the first piece composed by a single composer
The leading composer of the ballata was:
Francesco Landini was the leading composer of the _______ genre. He was also very ______. And he was from _______.
ballata. blind. Italy.
The Landini cadence is:
Tenor voice goes down by step
Lower voice descends to lower neighbor, then skips up a third
(goes down to go up)
Who coined "Ars Subtilior"?
Phillipus de Caserta
Who was Phillipus de Caserta?
He coined the phrase "Ars Subtilior"
The form of each stanza of a ballade is:
aabC is the form of which genre?
What is the Squarcialupi Codex?
The most abundant source of Italian secular polyphony.
What is the most abundant source of Italian secular polyphony?
The Squarcialupi Codex
Ars Subtilior music was intended to be performed by:
The following treatise contains keyboard versions of ballades by Machaut and ballate and madrigals composed by Landini:
The Robertsbridge Codex
The leading composer of the French Ars Nova was:
Guillame de Machaut
Guillame de Machaut was important. Why?
He was the leading composer of the French Ars Nova - also the first composer to write down his thoughts on music writing and first like.. legit composer, you know?
Who is credited with the establishment of the Ars Nova style?
Phillipe de Vitry
Who is Phillipe de Vitry?
The man who is credited with the establishment of the Ars Nova style.
What is hocketing?
A rhythmic technique in which two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings.
What is the rhythmic technique in which two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings?
What is a polyphonic song of the French Ars Nova?
What is a chanson?
A polyphonic song of the French Ars Nova
The use of coloration in the tenor in Ars Nova music indicates:
Change of meter
How did they indicate meter change in Ars Nova music?
use of coloration in the tenor
A formes fixes that contains only one stanza framed by a refrain that includes both sections of music used for the stanza is a:
What is a rondeau?
A formes fixes that contains only one stanza framed by a refrain that includes both sections of music used for the stanza
Who composed the earliest works in the Ars Nova style?
Phillipe de Vitry
What is the rhythmic device in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm?
What is isorhythm?
the rhythmic device in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm
A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church was:
Roman de Fauvel
What is "Roman de Fauvel"?
A 14th century allegorical narrative poem which used satire to comment on corruption in politics and the church
What is the name of the Italian song form that uses a popular-style melody in strict canon?
What is caccia?
the Italian song form that uses a popular-style melody in strict canon
In an isorhythmic motet, the repeating rhythmic unit is called the:
What is a "talea"?A
In an isorhythmic motet, it is the repeating rhythmic unit
A 14th century song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment is called a:
The instrument distinctions "haut" and "bas" referred to the instrument's: