English 4IB Literary Devices

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dailyvities
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English 4IB Literary Devices
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2013-08-16 03:01:31
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Lit Terms Literary Analyze
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Vocab quiz on Monday!!
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  1. a story or visual image with a second distinct meaning
    partially hidden behind its literal meaning.
    Allegory
  2. the repetition of beginning letters or sounds in a
    sequence of words. Ex. “She sells seashells by the sea shore”.
    Alliteration
  3. an indirect and
    unexplained remark regarding a person, place or event that is related to the
    topic and requires its reader to have knowledge of the referred to topic.
    Allusion
  4. the misplacing of
    any person, thing, custom, or event outside its proper historical time. An
    example would be modern clothes in Shakespearean plays.  Intentional or unintentional.
    Anachronism
  5. stories that are told in a non-linear or
    non-chronological order.  The term
    specifically deals with the recognition that the events being shown are not the
    first to occur in the story.  Think of
    flashbacks, or flashforwards
    Anachrony
  6. : a grammatical term for a change of construction in a
    sentence that leaves the initial construction unfinished: “Either you go–but
    we’ll see”.
    Anacoluthon
  7. higher spiritual meaning derived or taken from a
    text.  Related to allegories, usually
    dealing with ideas of humanity and not simply individuals
    Anagogical
  8. a method to fill
    readers or viewers in to information about characters in stories that are in
    media res, in the middle of action. Retrospection.
    Analepsis
  9. an idea by using another, more easily understandable
    idea.
    Analogy
  10. the same word or phrase, usually at the beginning,
    repeated in successive lines, clauses or phrases.
    Anaphora
  11. a figure of
    speech that makes a pun by repeating the same word or two words sounding alike
    (homophone), but with differing senses.
    Antanaclasis
  12. a general setup
    that is finished with a dissimilar resolution. 
    A let-down
    Anticlimax/ Anticlimactic
  13. a main character lacking the qualities of a typical
    hero
    Antihero
  14. a figure of speech in which a pair of words is
    repeated in reverse order
    Antimetabole
  15. a single word
    that is the opposite adjective of the noun it describes.  Shortest form of irony.
    Antiphrasis
  16. contrast or
    opposition, either rhetorical or philosophical.
    Antithesis
  17. Replacing a
    proper name with an epithet (a word that characterizes a person), official or
    other indirect description.  A famous
    proper name can also act as an antonomastic name.
    Antonomasia
  18. Abbreviated meaning in a few wise words
    Aphorism
  19. another word for
    fable.
    Apologue
  20. a symbol, theme
    setting or character-type that recurs in different times and places in myth,
    literature, folklore, dreams, and rituals so frequently or prominently as to
    suggest that it embodies some essential element of “universal” human
    experience.
    Archetypes
  21. the lack of
    conjunctions or connecting words between clauses.  “I came, I saw, I conquered”.
    Asyndeton
  22. artistic work that has no apparent meaning or
    end.  It is simply what it is.
    Autotelic
  23. hyperbole. Using a word of
    exaggerated form in place of another to accent importance.
    Auxesis
  24. a story that tracks the protagonist from their early
    years to adulthood, incorporating the difficulties of finding a sense of self
    or identity.  Also known as a
    formation-novel.
    Bildungsroman
  25. extremely
    inflated and grandiloquent diction, disproportionate to its subjects.

    Related
    words: hyperbole, rodomontade(negative), purple patch
    Bombast
  26. Using words
    incorrectly, such as mixing metaphors or using a term incorrectly.
    Catachresis
  27. the final
    denouement or resolution in a tragedy. 
    The protagonist usually dies in this type of ending.
    Catastrophe
  28. A purge or
    cleansing of the soul at the end of a tragedy or tragic drama.  Also used as a term to describe redemption
    for the protagonist resolving their guilty feelings.
    Catharsis
  29. the
    representation of persons in narrative and dramatic works. Direct methods are
    mentioned through qualities while indirect are through actions and dialogue to
    be inferred.  Flat, static, and
    two-dimensional characters are characters that are unchanging throughout the
    story.  Dynamic, or round characters
    change and are less predictable in the story.
    Character/ Characterization
  30. two clauses that
    are stated in reverse order of each other. 
    “Sin is pleasure, pleasure is a sin”(antimetabole) or two ideas that are
    corresponding to each other and reversed, “Despised if ugly; if she’s fair
    betrayed”.  A “criss-cross”in
    arrangement.
    Chiasmus
  31. saying something
    in a long, drawn out or roundabout way instead of referring to it simply and
    accurately.  Also known as periphrasis.
    Circumlocution
  32. The point where
    there is the most action, the peak of a build up.
    Climax
  33. a determining
    point in a novel or play when a decision will greatly affect what will happens
    next and, more importantly, the denouement.
    Crisis
  34. a hard to
    understand passage that the interpretation of the play depends on.
    Crux
  35. : the end of a complication
    in a story, clearing up any problems. 
    Sometimes called a resolution and occurring most often at the end of the
    story.
    Denouement
  36. “God from a
    machine”.  A denouement finding
    resolution from an illogical source, such as a character introduced at the end
    to solve all problems.
    Deus Ex Machina
  37. word choice
    Diction
  38. instructive
    Didactic
  39. to deviate from
    the main point with something that is not wholly on topic before returning to
    the initial point
    Digression
  40. . . .
    Ellipsis
  41. seeing is believing. 
    *The belief in observation and experience as the basis for
    knowledge.  This is versus logical
    deduction
    Empiricism
  42. a concluding
    section of a literary work.  Usually the
    epilogue highlights the events that occur after the main story is finished to give
    a larger sense of closure.
    Epilogue
  43. an adjective or
    adjective phrase that is supposed to describe a person and their quality.  Ex. Stan the Man
    Epithet
  44. The repetition of
    a word, for emphasis, with no breaks in the middle.

    Ex. dirty, dirty
    dirty!
    Epizeuxis
  45. A term for a name
    that is applied to a place or thing.  Ex.
    Hamlet is the eponymous character for Hamlet.  But they can also be indirectly mentioned,
    like Rainsford in “The Most Dangerous Game”.
    Eponymous
  46. a deliberately
    ambiguous expression.  Think of a pun or
    double entendre.
    Equivoque/ equivocal/ to equivocate
  47. the attempt to analyze a literary work thoroughly,
    giving full attention to its complexities of form and meaning
    Explication
  48. A term used to
    substitute a more clinical or uncomfortable thing.  Like using “going potty” instead of “having a
    bowel movement”.
    Euphemism
  49. A moral story
    which commonly utilizes animals or inanimate objects personified. The moral of
    the story tend to be delivered
    Fable
  50. A character with
    qualities or actions that highlight the characteristics of the protagonist.
    Foil
  51. Greek for error
    or failure. It is the cause of a protagonist’s downfall in a tragedy through
    misjudgment, ignorance or outside forces.
    Hamartia
  52. Our reading and
    understanding of a material based on our modern preconceptions, explaining
    possible differences between generational differences in interpretations.
    Horizon of Expectations
  53. Defiance of moral
    standards or godly request which leads to the protagonist of a tragedy to their
    fate (hamartia). Commonly referred to as the pride before the fall.
    Hubris
  54. when the story begins in the middle of action
    In Medias Res
  55. Comes in verbal,
    structural, dramatic, tragic and cosmic. It is a subtle inconsistency that
    leads to a misunderstanding of the original intended statement or event,
    created through an undermining by context.
    Irony
  56. A story or group
    of stories exaggerated and passed down orally. The subjects are human, not gods
    (myth).
    Legend
  57. A repeated phrase, image, symbol, or situation whose
    constant presence reaffirms the theme.
    Leitmotif
  58. A figure of
    speech where the negative phrase is used as a positive affirmation. (I’m not
    opposed to having a drink)
    Litotes
  59. works that
    emphasize a unique aspect of a region, often humorous. Customs, dialect,
    manners and method of story can all fall under this.
    Local color writing
  60. A work that
    utilizes fantastic events and occurrences, yet remains grounded in a realistic
    setting or objective authentic conveyance of story.
    Magic Realism
  61. The incorrect or
    inaccurate use of a long word or words, often comical as a result. (Cinnamons
    and Anti names instead of synonyms and antonyms)
    Malapropism
  62. A short,
    memorable statement about a general principle. Sometimes seen as advice
    (aphorism).
    Maxim
  63. to make smaller, understating or make less or
    something. (A bleeding wound referred to as a scratch)
    Meiosis
  64. a novel that
    poses as a true autobiographical writing.
    Memoir-novel
  65. Fiction about
    fiction. A book openly recognizes its fictional status through the author’s
    interruption of the continuous story.
    Metafiction
  66. Identifying
    something with another thing closely associated with it. (The bottle for
    alcohol, the press for newspapers.)
    Metonymy
  67. A dramatized allegory with concepts of virtues and
    vice personified and religious or moral overtones.
    Morality play
  68. A situation,
    incident, idea, image, or character-type that is found in many different
    literary works, folktales or myths; or any element of a work that is elaborated
    into a more general theme.
    Motif
  69. A reality-based story written to highlight human
    beings as being subject to nature or social environment.
    Naturalism
  70. punishment for wrongdoing, or the person who carries
    out the punishment, typically in tragedies. Often broken down into a definition
    of an enemy.
    Nemesis
  71. a word that is
    created for a single occasion or has only occurred once.
    Nonce word
  72. A figure of speech that places two words of opposite
    meaning together to form a paradoxical statement.
    Oxymoron
  73. a word spelled the same, forward and back
    Palindrome
  74. A short tale that
    is intended to be an allegory, to teach a lesson or moral.
    Parable
  75. A pattern or
    model in which some quality or relation is illustrated in its purest form.
    Paradigm
  76. A statement that
    is so contradictory that we have to assume a different meaning for it.
    Paradox
  77. A restatement of
    ideas in the text to create a clearer understanding of the ideas. It is the
    separation or abstraction of the content from the form.
    Paraphrase
  78. the juxtaposition of sentences or clauses without a
    clear connection to each other. (I’m tired; you stay here)
    Paratactic
  79. An imitation of a work or writing, making fun of style
    or the general school of thought by exaggeration
    Parody
  80. A work that uses
    borrowed methods, usually from another time period. Sometimes used to criticize
    lack of originality.
    Pastiche (pas-teesh)
  81. A build up of a
    sentence before revealing its conclusion, usually with a balance of subordinate
    clauses.
    Periodic sentence
  82. a reversal of
    fortune and circumstance, usually coinciding with an epiphany, revelation,  or recognition (also known as an
    anagnorisis).
    Peripetia (pe-ri-puh-tee-ah)
  83. a figure of
    speech that applies human characteristics to animals, abstracts and non-human
    objects.
    Personification
  84. a story that has
    multiple points of view or speakers interacting on equal terms.
    Polyphonic
  85. : a figure of speech in which a partial repetition
    arises from the use in close proximity of two related words having different
    forms, e.g. singular and plural forms of the same word: ‘Going, going gone’.
    Polyptoton
  86. homonym (grave
    meaning serious or tomb)
    Polysemy
  87. The repeated use
    of conjunctions to link together words, phrases and sentences. “The woods were
    filled with bears and rabbits and sheep and frogs and bucks and…”Opposite of
    asyndeton.
    Polysyndeton
  88. Raising
    an argument then answering the argument to solidify a claim.
    Procatalepsis
  89. A description or
    epithet in a story that will later become true or information given about a
    character prior to the event occurring. Greek for anticipation.
    Prolepsis
  90. The battle of
    virtues and vice for the soul or within the soul.
    Psychomachy
  91. a phrase or
    statement with two different interpretations created by the use of homophones
    or polysemy.
    Pun
  92. the character in
    a play that most likely is a funnel for the author’s view. They tend to be
    detached from the play and have a more accurate, objective view.
    Raissoneur
  93. A method of
    writing seeking to portray life accurately or reflecting an actual way of life.
    Realism
  94. A rapid and witty
    response in conversation, usually turning an insult back on its originator. May
    also refer to ones talent to do so.
    Repartee
  95. A term for a
    heroic family centric story spanning two or more generations.
    Saga
  96. A form of writing
    that exposes weakness or flaws in people, institutions or societies to mock or
    ridicule them.
    Satire
  97. a brief outline
    of characters, plot and scene changes in a drama.
    Scenario
  98. the study of
    meaning in a sentence.
    Semantics
  99. Dialogue where
    two characters have a rapid fire speak and response conversation of one liners,
    typically incorporating a piece of the other’s utterance.
    Stichomythia
  100. A representation
    of the continuous flow, and perception and reception of the human minds,
    usually disjointed and scattered to reflect the condition.
    Stream of Conscious
  101. A concurrent
    sequence of events occurring with minor characters.
    Subplot
  102. Something that
    represents more than they are. (A heart meaning love, rather than just a heart)
    Symbol
  103. a verbal
    contraction omitting a letter in the middle of a word.  (O’er for over)
    Syncope (sink-o-pi)
  104. Referring to a
    person or people with only a part of what makes them up. (“Hands for laborers”,
    “the law for a police officer”.)
    Synechdoche
  105. Word order, and
    the functions and rules related to it.
    Syntax
  106. a picture formed
    by people in a static pose (standing still).
    Tableau
  107. A salient
    abstract idea that emerges from a literary work’s treatment of its subject
    manner; or a topic recurring in a number of literary works. Characterization,
    motifs, language, plot are indicators of theme.
    Theme
  108. The defect in
    character that leads to the downfall of the protagonist. Similar to hamartia.
    Tragic Flaw
  109. a parody that is
    extreme in its neglect of seriousness or its treatment of unimportant content
    as highly important.
    Travesty
  110. a written work
    devoted to the systematic examination of a particular subject, usually
    philosophical or scientific.
    Treatise
  111. a figure of
    speech using words in ways beyond their literal meanings. Examples are
    metaphors, similes, irony, and personification. A trope often affects the
    meaning of words in a more abstract way, rather than in a semantic way.
    Trope
  112. a play written
    with only two speaking parts.
    Two-Hander
  113. the establishing
    of emotion or attitude towards a subject
    Tone
  114. the intentional
    use of wording to make a larger situation seem smaller
    Understatement
  115. a short, self
    contained story,  essay or descriptive
    prose
    Vignette
  116. the more widely
    accepted attitudes or ideas of a time period
    Zeitgeist
  117. a
    figure of speech describing a sentence where one noun or verb refers to two
    others in the same sentence. There are multiple versions of this term.
    Zeugma

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