Econ203 - CH6 and CH7

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wwfbader
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230146
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Econ203 - CH6 and CH7
Updated:
2013-08-16 04:30:59
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concordia Econ 203
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econ 203 - 2013
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  1. What are 2 assumptions to remember about the short run?
    All prices and wages,interest rates and foreign exchanges are all FIXED

    at these prices and wages, businesses produce the output that is demanded.
  2. What is Aggregate Expenditure (AE)?
    The total of all planned spending in the economy. This includes spending by households, investment expenditure by businesses and spending by people from other countries on our exports.
  3. What is Disposable Income? and the formula
    This is the total income received from businesses, plus transfer payments received from the government, minus direct taxes/net taxes paid to the government.

    • Yd = Y - T
    • Yd = (1-t)Y
  4. What is the consumption function formulae?
    C = cY + C0
  5. What is induced expenditure?
    expenditure that is determined by national income levels. This is represented by cY in the consumption fomulae
  6. How do you find the Marginal Propensity to Consume?
    MPC = ChangeinC/ChangeinY
  7. What is Saving?
    Income that is not consumed
  8. What's the Saving function formula?
    S = -C0+(1-c)Y
  9. MPC + MPS = ___
    1
  10. What are autonomous in the expenditure based GDP?
    Investment and Exports
  11. What do exports depend on? (3)
    • income levels in other countries
    • price levels in those countries and
    • the foreign exchange rate
  12. What is the aggregate expenditure function?
    the relationship between planned expenditure in the total economy and real national income or GDP
  13. What are the two functions affected by the income level?
    Consumption and Imports therefore

    Change in AE = ChangeinC-ChangeinZ
  14. What is the slope of AE?
    (c-z)
  15. Whats the formula for Ye?
    Ye = A0/(1-c+z)
  16. What are adjustments in output that move the economy to Ye?
    they are unplanned changes in business inventories.

    eg - if demand is high for a nike store and they want to sell more without being able to produce more they could bring out last seasons stuff
  17. What happens to employment when Ye is less than Yp?
    Employment is less than full, the unemployment rate is higher than the natural rate, the economy is in recession
  18. What is the multiplier? and the formula
    it's the ratio of the change in equilibrium output (Ye) to the change in autonomous expenditure (A0)

    = ChangeinYe/ChangeinA0

    or 

    = 1/(1-slope)
  19. What are leakages? What are included in them
    This is when parts of the national income are not passed on to businesses through expenditure on current goods and services. Savings, net taxes and imports are leakages
  20. What are injections? what is included in them
    this is when businesses receive money for goods and services that is not related to income levels. Autonomous investment, government spending and exports are injections.
  21. What are transfer payments?
    services like old age security and employment insurance benefits that the government provides citizens for free
  22. What's the formula when (leakages = injections) at equilibrium
    I+G+X=Z+T+S
  23. What are Net Taxes (NT)? Whats the formula
    • Taxes minus transfer payments
    • net taxes reduce disposable income (the amount of income available for spending or saving). so if we use t to indicate the net tx rate then

    NT = tY
  24. What is the Government Budget?
    Reports government revenues and expenditures

    this basically means what goods and services the government will buy during the year, what transfer payments it will make, and how it will pay for them.

    • When revenues > spending = budget surplus
    • revenues < Spending = budget deficit
    • Revenues = spending = budget balanced
  25. What is the formula for Budget Balance (BB)
    BB = tY - G

    Net Taxes minus gov spending
  26. What are three things that the budget balance is determined by?
    • 1. The net tax rate (t)
    • 2. The level of spending (G) by the government
    • 3. The level of output (Y) determined by AE and AD
  27. What is Fiscal Policy?
    government use of its taxes and spending to change real output
  28. What are the main objectives of fiscal policy?
    • 1 - Manage aggregate demand
    • 2 - Keep output close to potential output
    • 3 - Reduce size and duration of business cycle fluctuations (recessions and booms)
  29. Using just the budget balance...
    We can NOT tell the reason for a deficit or surplus
  30. What is Structural Budget Balance (SBB)? Whats the formula?
    Is the budget balance at potential output (Yp). It does not change whether there is a recession or boom (not affected by actual output).


    SBB - tYp - G
  31. What are Automatic Stabilizers?
    they reduce changes in GDP caused by autonomous expenditure shocks. Basically, they reduce the size of the inflationary and recessionary gaps.

    • - anything that lowers the multiplier is an automatic stabilizer.
    • - income taxes and transfer payments are good examples
  32. All _____ are automatic stabilizers
    leakages
  33. What is a Discretionary Fiscal Policy?
    Policies that change taxes and government spending in response to changes in autonomous expenditure
  34. What is Public Debt? Le formula?
    Governments borrow money to finance (pay for) budget deficits by selling government bonds to households and businesses. The outstanding govt bonds issues to pay for government budget deficits.a

    ChangeinPD = -BB
  35. What is Net Public Debt?
    the difference between the government's total debt and its financial assets. ex: stocks and bonds. The govt often owns financial assets like bonds that it earns interest on
  36. What is Debt Ratio?
    The ratio of public debt to GDP
  37. What is Net Debt Ratio?
    • The ratio of net public debt to GDP
    • - When the debt ratio is high, the govt will need high tax rates to reduce the debt. this can lead to people not wanting to work and therefore spending less.

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