Chapter 8: School Age Years and Beyond

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  1. Shifting Sources of Language Input:
    What is the sole source of lang input for children before school
    through the oral modality
  2. Shifting Sources of Language Input: 
    When do children shift to gaining more language input from text?
    • around 8-10 yoa, or 3rd grade
    • language also becomes more individualized
  3. Shifting Sources of Language Input: 
    What roles does reading have on children at this age?
    Reading has a role in developing phonological, semantic, and pragmatic areas of oral language in addition to building their lexical knowledge
  4. Shifting Sources of Language Input: 
    What does reading allow a child to do?
    allows children to reflect on language: review and think about written words that remain in front of them
  5. _____ ______ ______ must occur _______ of reading and writing activities and in a _______ relation with reading and writing development.
    oral lang development, independently, symbiotic
  6. Stages of Reading Development: 
    what does the child need to understand in order to read
    • 1. graphemes letters and letter combinations
    • 2. phonemes (sound) correspondence (b is the buh sound) 
    • 3. how well the child understands print awareness and phonological awareness in the preschool period
  7. What are the stages of reading development
    • Prereading Stage
    • Stage 1-The Initial Reading/Decoding Stage
    • Stage 2-Confirmation, Fluency, and Ungluing from Print
    • Stage 3-Reading for Learning the New
    • Stage 4-Multiple Viewpoints: High School
    • Stage 5-Construction and Reconstruction-A world view: college
  8. Reading Stages:
    Prereading and Stage 1: The Initial Reading or Decoding Stage
    • Prereading:
    • Birth until the beginning of formal education
    • some of the most critical developments, including oral lang, print awareness, and phonological awareness 
    • window of opportunity
    • Stage 1-Initial Reading, Decoding
    • Kindergarten and 1st grade, 5-7 yoa
    • Associate letters and their corresponding sounds in spoken words as they begin to decode words
    • There are three phases within the stage:
    • 1st Phase=word substitution errors that are semantically and syntactically probable
    •    -may be reading along and will state what is happening but is not correct semantically or syntactically (ie substitute boy for girl)
    • 2nd Phase=word substitution errors that have a graphic resemblance to the printed word (ie "why on this night do we ear Hebrews" as opposed to herbs)
    • 3rd Phase=word substitution errors that have a graphic resemblance to the printed word, but also substitutions that are semantically acceptable (the word is ants but the child says bugs)
  9. Reading Stages:
    Stage 2-Confirmation, Fluency, and Ungluing from Print
    • 2nd-3rd grade, 7-8 yoa
    • hone decoding skills learned in stage 1
    • proficient with high freq words and use the redundancies of lang in order to gain fluency and speed in reading
    • gradually transition from learning to read to reading to learn (first three grades)
  10. Reading Stages:
    Stage 3-Reading for Learning the New: A first Step
    • Grades 4-8/9, 9-14 yoa
    • read to gain new info
    • textbooks are less contextualized so you have to solve a problem instead of have the answer be obvious
    • solidly reading to learn by the end of the stage
    • expands children's vocabularies, builds background and world knowledge and develops strategic reading habits

    • 2 distinct phases of 3:
    • overall, read to gain new info
    • stage 3a:
    •    grades 4-6, 9-11 yoa
    •    conventional knowledge of the world
    •    able to read works of typical adult length, but not same level of reading difficulty as adults
    • stage 3b:
    •    grades 7-8/9, 12-14 yoa
    •    read on a general adult level
    •    able to read books with a double meaning
    •    build background and world knowledge
  11. Reading Stages:
    Stage 4- Multiple Viewpoints: High School
    • High school period, 14-18 yoa
    • increasingly difficult concepts and texts that describe them
    • consider multiple points of view
    • builds upon knowledge in stage 3
  12. Reading Stages:
    Stage 5-Construction and Reconstruction-A World View: College
    • Age 18 onward
    • Read selectively
    •    know which portions of the text to read
    •    make judgments about what to read, how much to read, how much to read, and in what level of detail, in order to achieve comprehension
    •    advanced cognitive processes: analysis, synthesis, and prediction in order to construct meaning from text
  13. metalinguistic competence
    • ability to think about and analyze lang as an object of attention
    • increases significantly in school-age years and beyond because many of the activities children engage in draw upon analysis of language
    •    phonological awareness
    •    figurative lang: metaphors, assimilation, idioms
  14. Figurative Language
    • language that we use in non-literal and often abstract ways
    • children must recognize that language is an arbitrary code
    •  used to evoke mental images and sense impressions in others
    • includes: metaphors, similes, oxymorons, hyperboles, idioms, irony and proverbs
    • children have a harder time with figurative language
  15. metaphors
    • use an expression to refer to something that it does not denote literally, in order to convey similarity
    •    topic is compared to vehicle
    •    share features and form the basis of comparison called the ground
    • 2 different types: predictive metaphors and proportional metaphors

    children must have strong grasp of specific concepts that subordinate-level words express to understand and use metaphors
  16. predictive metaphors
    contains one topic (target) and one vehicle (base).

    all the world's a stage
  17. proportional metaphor
    contains two targets and two bases and expresses an analogical relationship 

    the artist was an apple tree with no fruit
  18. similes
    • contain a topic, vehicle , and ground
    • make comparison between the topic and vehicle explicit by using the word "like" or "as"

    quiet as a mouse
  19. ocymorons
    figurative speech that combines 2 contradictory terms in order to achieve rhetorical effect

    working vacation, original copy, strangely familiar
  20. hyperboles
    • a form of figurative language that sue exaggeration for emphasis or effect
    • i'm so hungry, i could eat a horse
    • research for when child develop hyperboles is inconclusive
  21. idioms
    • contain both a literal and figurative lang
    • "we're in the same boat"
    • opaque: demonstrate little relationship between the literal and interpretation and the figurative interpretation (ie drive someone up the wall, impossible to do)

    transparent: the figurative meaning of a transparent idiom is an extension of the literal meaning (ie hold you tongue, possible and visual)
  22. irony and sarcasm
    • types of figurative language that involves differences between what a speaker says and what actually happens
    • they differ depending upon whether the statement refers to a particular individual
    •    irony: unmet expectations not the fault of an individual
    •    sarcasm: individual's failure to meet an expectation 
    •    verbal irony: speaker says one thing but really means another "oh, that's just great"
    •    dramatic irony: audience is aware of facts that the characters are unaware of
  23. proverbs
    • statements that express the conventional values, beliefs and wisdom of society
    • treat others as you want to be treated
    • one of the most difficult types of figurative lang to master
    • communicative functions served:
    •    commenting
    •    interpreting
    •    advising
    •    warning
    •    encouraging
    •    Aesop's Fables
  24. what are the 3 areas in school age development of language
    • phonological development
    • morphological development
    • complex syntax development
  25. why is morphological and phonological development needed?
    so that you are better able to change the meaning of a word (ie complex syntax, use of ly etc)
  26. Phonological Development at the School age
    • morphophonemic changes are sound modifications we make when we join certain morphemes
    •    vowel shifting: change the form class of a word by adding a derivational suffix (/eΙ/ to /ae/ sane to santiy)
    •    how to use stress and emphasis phrases from compound words and to distinguish nouns from verbs
  27. Morphological Development at the School age
    • major morphological developments in the school-age years include infectional and derivational (adding un to healthy, changes to a negative) suffixes
    •    add inflectional prefixes to the beginnings of words in order to change their meanings
    •       PREschool
    •    add devrivational suffixes to the ends of words to change their form class
    •       hopeless
  28. Lexical Development
    upon graduation form high school, students will have command of over 60,000 words
  29. what are the ways in which school-age children learn new words
    • Direct instruction
    • contextual abstraction
    • morphological analysis
  30. direct instruction
    • learning a word's meaning directly from a more knowledgeable source-another person or dictionary
    • children do not begin to use dictionaires to learn the meanings of words until about second grade (7-8 yoa)
  31. contextual abstraction
    • using context clues in both spoken and written forms of language in order to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words
    • unfamiliar word in text: pragmatic inferences or logical inferences about the meaning of the words
    •    pragmatic inferences about a word's meaning use bring one's own world knowledge, or background knowledge to the text
    •    logical inferences use only the info provided by the text and are more difficult to make than pragmatic inferences
  32. context clues for contextual abstraction
    • appositives-a definition
    • relative clauses-word in relation to other objects people or thing
    • the conjunction or-gives further info
    • direct explanation-definition
    • linked synonyms-in opposition to the word you would like to define signified by a morphological preffix
    • participal phrases-as a result of
    • categorical sequence-grouping of words that have similar meaning...mangoes, pineapples, papayas, and plantains
    • restatement-saying info in a different way
    • illustrations or examples-for example
    • personification-
    • summary-explaining
    • cause and effect-because
  33. understanding multiple meanings:
    • polysemous-more than one meaning
    • examples=orange, bare and bear, to, too and two
    • provide multiple definitions for words that have several common meanings as they develop, but difficulty understanding the secondary meanings of words the bear little or no relation to the primary meaning
    • being able to supply multiple meanings for words requires not only lexical knowledge, but also metalinguistic knowledge
  34. understanding lexical and sentential ambiguity
    • lexical ambiguity occurs for words and phrases with multiple meanings
    •    humor in jokes, riddles, comic strips, newspaper headlines, bumper stickers etc
    • sentential ambiguity involves ambiguity within different components of sentences.
  35. lexical ambiguity:
    what does that word mean
  36. phonological ambiguity
    varying pronunciations of a word
  37. surface-structure ambiguity
    • varying stress and intonation
    • I mean IT!
  38. deep-structure ambiguity
    • noun that serves as an agent in one interpretation and as an object in the alternative interpretation
    • ex He has a devious mind or he is a devious person
  39. homophones
    • words that sound alike but have different meanings
    • bear weight, brown bear
  40. heterographs
    • homophones are words that are spelled the differently and sound alike
    • brown bear, bare hands
  41. homographs
    • words that are spelled the same way but have different meanings
    • they may sound alike (row a boat v. row of houses) or may sound different (record player v. record a movie)
  42. homonyms
    words that are alike in spelling and pronunciation but differ in meaning (brown bear and bear weight, homophones and homonyms)
  43. literate language
    • language that is highly decontextualized
    • child's ability to use language without the aid of context cues for supporting meaning
    •    must rely on language itself to make meaning (more formal language that the way we talk)
  44. literate language:
    discourse development
    • discourse (type of narrative where we tell stories or events [what i did on my summer vacation]) development moves along a continuum from oral language to literate language
    • lower end of the continuum is oral language, or the linguistic aspects of communicative competence necessary for communicating very basic desires and needs
    •    learning to talk
    •    1. highly contextualized style: depends on immediate context and environment
    •    2. referential pronouns: refer to something physically available to the speaker
    •    3. gestures and facial expressions
    • children who talk to learn represent the literate language end of the discourse continuum
    •    1. use lang chiefly as a way to communicate higher order cognitive functions
    •    2. highly specific vocab and complex syntax that express ideas, events, and objects beyond those of the present
  45. What are the 4 specific features of literate lang that children learn to use
    • 1. elaborate noun phrases: a group of words consisting of a noun and one or more modifiers providing additional info about the noun, including: articles, possessives and demonstratives, quantifiers, adjectives
    •    -a dog, my dog, my favorite dog, furry dog
    • 2. adverbs: a syntactic form that modifies verbs and enhances the explicitness of action and event descriptions
    •    -my dog ferociously barked
    • 3. conjunctions: words that organize info and clarify relationships among elements
    •    -my dog ferociously barked and barked at my brother.
    • 4. mental and linguistic verbs: refer to various acts of thinking and speaking
    •    measuring observable actions
    •    mental verbs include think, know, believe, feel etc
    •    linguistic verbs include say, tell, speak, shout, call, yell
  46. functional flexibility
    • the ability to use language for a variety of communicative purposes or functions
    •    compare and contrast
    •    persuade
    •    hypothesize
    •    explain
    •    classify
    •    predict in the context of classroom activities
    • integrate these functions in order to achieve communicative competence
  47. according to nippold students must be able to integrate what 7 skills in order to use language to persuade
    • 1. adjust to listener characteristics (age, authority)
    • 2. stat advantages as a reason to comply
    • 3. anticipate and reply to counterarguments
    • 4. use positvie techniques as strategies to increase compliance (politeness and bargaining)
    • 5. avoid negative strategies (whining and begging)
    • 6. generate a large number and variety of arguments
    • 7. control the discourse assertively
  48. narrative development
    • narration is more complex than conversation because the speaker carries the linguistic load whereas the listener or audience takes a relatively passive role
    • younger children produce at least 4 types of narratives:
    •    recounts
    •    accounts
    •    eventcasts
    •    fictionalized stories
    • school aged shildren learn how to move both forward and backward in time as they tell their narratives
    • children's narrative also begin to describe others' physical and mental states and also describe others' motivations for actions
    •    she felt sick, she felt excited etc
    • include multiple episodes (statements of a problem or challenge and all of the elements that relate to the solution of that problem or challenge)
  49. narrative development:
    telling a story about one's past experiences or retelling a story that one has read
  50. narrative development:
  51. narrative development:
    describe some current situation or event as it is happening
  52. narrative development:
    fictionalized stories
    made up character must overcome some sort of challenge or problem
  53. story grammar
    • includes all of the components of a narrative (eg setting, episodes) as well as the rules that govern those components
    •    setting and episode structure
  54. story grammar:
    components of story grammar
    • intro
    • initial event
    • character development-distinction between main and supporting roles
    • mental states-mental stat words (worried etc)
    • referencing-use of pronouns so that reader understands what pronouns refer to consistently throughout the story
    • cohesion-story's events presented in logical order
    • resolution-conflicts are resolved
    • conclusion-use of general conclusion statements
  55. vocab use and conversational style
    • most recent research suggest that context and social status effects on lang use may be stronger than gender effects 
    • women use more polite words and men more coarse and swear
    • hedges: linguistic devices that soften utterances by signaling imprecision and noncommitment
    •    about, sort of, you know etc
    • school age children accommodate their own speech to match that of their conversational partner, regardless of their partner's gender
  56. language and aging
    • lang abilities continue to develop and change throughout life 
    • some issues that occur as we age
    •    -word finding or tip of the tongue phenomenon
    •    -difficulty spelling
    •    -speak more slowly
    •    -difficulty understanding other's prosody
    •    -difficulty with sarcasm and irony
    •    -difficulty with higher order lang processing
  57. types of assessments
    • formative evaluations: focus on the process of language development
    • summative evaluations: focus on the products and final outcomes of lang learning and development
  58. types of assessments:
    4 types of assessments
    identify students who require extra assistance in certain areas, brief, not in depth
  59. types of assessments:
    4 types of assessments
    diagnostic assessments
    obtain an in-depth probe of a child's instructional needs
  60. types of assessments:
    4 types of assessments
    progress monitoring assessments
    document children's rates of improvement in an area and compare the efficacy of curricula and interventions
  61. types of assessments:
    4 types of assessments
    outcome assessments
    document discrepancy between expected outcomes and observed outcomes in a particular area, what is the discrepancy between expected and actual outcomes and why
  62. measuring phonological development, what is being measured
    • goldman-fristoe test of articulation 2
    • children and adolescents through 21 years of age
    • articulate consonant sounds by sampling both spontaneous and imitative sound production using pictures and verbal cues from the examiner
  63. measuring syntactic development, language samples
    • language samples: code the transcript for communication units (c-units) or terminable units (t-units)
    •    c-units can include incomplete sentences and sentence fragments (used in oral samples), whereas t-units can only include complete sentences (used in written samples)
    •    number and type of noun phrases, verb phrases, questions and negation strategies a student uses
  64. standardized test
    • formal tests given
    • test of lang development-intermediate
    • 8-12 years, 11 months
    • understanding and meaningful use of spoken words, as well as different aspects of grammar
    • subtests include: sentence combining, word ordering, syntax and grammatik comprehenshion
  65. assessing language use, what is being measured
    • measure the extent to which students control conversational topics and produce contingent v. non-contingent response in conversation
    • standardized assessment:
    •    test of language competence: expanded edition
    •       students' higher level language function through the following subtests: ambiguous sentences, tell me what is wrong with this sentence
    •       listening comprehension: making inferences
    •       oral expression: recreating speech acts, figurative lang and also includes a supplemental memory subtest
Card Set:
Chapter 8: School Age Years and Beyond
2013-08-16 23:36:45

343 Speech and Language Development, Levy-Craven
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