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What neurotransmitter can also act as a hormone?
When hormones act locally rather than being secreted into the bloodstream, their actions are termed what?
Autocrine and paracrine
Where are adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones excreted?
bile and urine
When are GH injections best given to children?
When the assessment of thyroid autoantobodies is performed, what is the suspected diagnosis?
Physical examination of a husky voice, face puffed around the eyes, enlarged tongue
Manifestations of Thyroid storm
Tachycardia, delirium, very high fever
What drug is given orally to patients with Addison's disease?
What are the manifestations of acute adrenal crisis?
HTN, muscle weakness, dehydration, vascular collapse
What are the manifestations of Cushing syndrome?
- moon face
- buffalo hump
- protruding abdomen
- thin extremities
- muscle weakness
Which cells secrete insulin?
When the glucocorticoid hormones remain elevated for extended periods of time, what can happen?
In type 2 diabetes
What are the metabolic abnormalities that occur in the presence of glucose?
- Deranged secretion of insulin
- Insulin resistance
- Increased glucose production by the liver
What disorders can cause diabetes
Pheochromocytoma and Cushing's
What is the disorder of glucose intolerance that occurs during pregnancy?
Gestational diabetes mellitus
What are the hallmark signs of diabetes?
What is the most definitive diagnosis for DKA?
- blood glucose level >250 mg/dL
- bicarbonate <15 mEq/L
- pH <7.3
What are the S/Sx of hypoglycemia?
Altered cerebral function and headache
Research has identified a cycle of insulin-induced posthypoglycemic episodes. What is this phenomenon called?
What organs are most at risk for injury in diabetics?
Kidneys and eyes
What is the most common complication of diabetics requiring hospitalization?