Chemistry key

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freddy562
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230273
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Chemistry key
Updated:
2013-08-17 20:21:42
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chemistry key terms
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this is just things to know.
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  1. ELEMENT
    A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE CHEMICALLY BROKEN DOWN INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCE.
  2. COMPOUND
    A SUBSTANCE COMPOSE OF TOW OR MORE ELEMENTS IN A FIXED DEFINITE PROPORTIONS. (EXAMPLE WATER, A MOLECULE)
  3. PURE SUBSTANCE
    ONE COMPOSE OF ONLY A SINGLE TYPE OF ATOM OR MOLECULE (EXAMPLE ALUMINUM OR WATER)
  4. MIXTURE
    A SUBSTANCE COMPOSE OF TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES THAT CAN BE COMBINE IN VARIABLE PROPORTIONS. (EX. SALT AND WATER. SAND AND WATER)
  5. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE
    ONE IN WHICH THE COMPOSITION VARIES FROM ONE REGION TO ANOTHER. (rocks, oil and water, soup, pizza) DO NOT MIX
  6. HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE
    is a mixture where the components that make up the mixture are uniformly distributed throughout the mixture. EXAMPLE (air, blood, saturated sugar water)
  7. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES RULES
    • ALL NON-ZEROS ARE SIGNIFICANT (23.056)
    • INTERIOR ZEROS ARE SIGNIFICANT (23.056)
    • LEADING ZEROS ARE NOT SIGNIFICANT. ONLY SERVE TO LOCATE THE DECIMAL POINT. (0.0032)
    • TRAILING ZEROS AFTER THE DECIMAL POINT ARE SIGNIFICANT. (45.02300)
    • TRAILING ZEROS BEFORE AN IMPLIED DECIMAL POINT ARE AMBIGUOUS AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED BY USING SIGNIFICANT NOTATION. (1200 --> 1.2X10^3)
  8. LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
    ALL SAMPLES OF A GIVEN COMPOUND REGARDLESS OF THEIR SOURCE OR HOW THEY WERE PREPARED, HAVE THE SAME PROPORTIONS OF THEIR CONSTITUENT ELEMENT.

    FOR EXAMPLE, THE DECOMPOSTION OF 10.0g OF OXYGEN AND 2.0g OF HYDROGEN, OR AN OXYGEN-TO-HYDROGEN RATIO OF 8:1

    RATIO MASS: OXYGEN MASS/HYDROGEN MASS

    RATIO MASS:
  9. ISOTOPES
    ATOMS WITH THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS BUT DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS.
  10. CHEMICAL SYMBOL AND ISOTOPES
    • NEON HAS 10 PROTONS GIVING IT IS NAME. IF IT HAD 11 PROTONS IT WOULD BE CALLED SODIUM(NA). TO GET THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS YOU FIND THE DIFFERENCE FROM BOTH NUMBERS. THE TOP NUMBER IS THE ATOMIC MASS. BOTTOM NUMBER IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER.
  11. CATIONS
    POSITIVE CHARGE IONS
  12. ANIONS
    NEGATIVE CHARGE IONS
  13. IONS
    • THE LOST OR GAIN OF AN ELECTRON DURING A CHEMICAL CHANGE.
  14. LEARN THE CHARGEGES
    • 6-4
    • 4-4-1-0-1
  15. MOLAR MASS
    THE VALUE OF AN ELEMENT MOLAR MASS IN GRAMS PER MOLE IS NUMERICALLY EQUAL TO THE ELEMENT'S ATOMIC MASS IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS.

    I MOL OF ALUMINUM IS 26.98(ATOMIC MASS)g. WHICH IS EQUAL TO 6.022*10^23 ATOMS OF AL
  16. ONE MOLE OF WATER
    IS 6.022*10^23 MOLECULES OF H2O
  17. EMPIRICAL FORMULA
    • A TYPE OF CHEMICAL FORMULA
    • SIMPLY GIVES THE RELATIVE NUMBER OF ATOMS OF EACH ELEMENT IN A COMPOUND.
    • EXAMPLE   
  18. MOLECULAR FORMULA
    • A TYPE OF CHEMICAL FORMULA
    • GIVES THE ACTUAL NUMBER OF ATOMS OF EACH ELEMENT IN A MOLECULE OF A COMPOUND
    • EXAMPLE
  19. IONIC BONDS
    • When one atom transfers one or more of its electrons
    • completely to another, each atom becomes an ion, since each has an unequal
    • number of protons and electrons. The atom gaining electrons becomes negatively
    • charged, while the atom losing electrons becomes positively charged.
    • USUALLY BETWEEN METAL AND NONMETAL
  20. COVALENT BONDS
    • When two atoms share electrons.
    • 1)An atom of hydrogen has one electron in its first shell. One more electron is
    • needed to fill the shell.
    • 2)The nuclei of two hydrogen atoms come closer together and share the two electrons,which
    • circle around both of them. The new H2 molecule is more stable.
    • USUALLY BETWEEN TWO NON-METAL
  21. CHEMICAL FORMULA
    THE QUICKEST AND EASIEST WAY TO REPRESENT A COMPOUND. IT INDICATES THE ELEMENT PRESENT IN THE COMPOUND AND RELATIVE NUMBER OF ATOMS OR IONS OF EACH. EXAMPLE
  22. MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    ARE USUALLY COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE COVALENT BONDED NONMETALS
  23. IONIC COMPOUNDS
    ARE COMPOSE OF CATIONS (USUALLY ONE TYPE OF METAL) AND ANIONS (USUALLY ONE OR MORE NONMETALS) BONDED BY IONIC BONDS
  24. NAMING IONIC COMPOUND
    • NAME OF CATION(METAL) FOLLOW BY THE BASE NAME OF THE ANION(NON METAL)+ -IDE
    • EXAMPLE
    • KCl
    • K IS THE METAL
    • Cl IS THE NONMETAL
    • POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
  25. NAMING IONIC COMPOUND THAT HAS A METAL WITH DIFFERENT CATIONS
    • NAME OF CATION(METAL)(TYPE OF CATION) FOLLOW BY THE BASE NAME OF THE ANION(NON METAL)+ -IDE
    • EXAMPLE CuO
    • CU=2+ AND 3+
    • SINCE O IS A 2- CHARGE THE CU HAS TO BE A 2+  CHARGE
    • COPPER(II) OXIDE
  26. NAMING MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    • (PREFIX(NAME OF 1ST ELEMENT)) + (PREFIX(BASE OF SECOND ELEMENT))
    • THE PREFIX IS THE NUMBER OF ATOMS

    • EXAMPLE = NITROGEN DIOXIDE
    • + DINITROGEN MONOXIDE
  27. PREFIX FOR MOLECULAR COMPOUND
    • MONO-                    =1
    • DI-                          =2
    • TRI-                        =3
    • TETRA-                  =4
    • PENTA-                 =5
    • HEXA-                   =6
    • HEPTA-                 =7
    • OCTA-                   =8
    • NONA-                 =9
    • DECA-                   =10

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