NCLEX questions

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NCLEX questions
2013-08-18 10:57:08

Patho test 4
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  1. What neurotransmitter can also act as a hormone?
  2. When hormones act locally rather than being secreted into the bloodstream, their actions are termed what?
    Autocrine and paracrine
  3. Where are adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones excreted?
    bile and urine
  4. When are GH injections best given to children?
    At night
  5. When the assessment of thyroid autoantobodies is performed, what is the suspected diagnosis?
  6. Physical examination of a husky voice, face puffed around the eyes, enlarged tongue
  7. Manifestations of Thyroid storm
    Tachycardia, delirium, very high fever
  8. What drug is given orally to patients with Addison's disease?
  9. What are the manifestations of acute adrenal crisis?
    HTN, muscle weakness, dehydration, vascular collapse
  10. What are the manifestations of Cushing syndrome?
    moon facebuffalo humpprotruding abdomenthin extremitiesmuscle weakness
  11. When the glucocorticoid hormones remain elevated for extended periods of time, what can happen?
  12. In type 2 diabetes

    What are the metabolic abnormalities that occur in the presence of glucose?
    • Deranged secretion of insulin
    • Insulin resistance
    • Increased glucose production by the liver
  13. What disorders can cause diabetes
    Pheochromocytoma and Cushing's
  14. What is the disorder of glucose intolerance that occurs during pregnancy?
    Gestational diabetes mellitus
  15. What are the hallmark signs of diabetes?
    • Polyuria
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyphagia
  16. What is the most definitive diagnosis for DKA?
    blood glucose level >250 mg/dLbicarbonate <15 mEq/LpH <7.3
  17. What are the S/Sx of hypoglycemia?
    Altered cerebral function and headache
  18. Research has identified a cycle of insulin-induced posthypoglycemic episodes. What is this phenomenon called?
    Somogyi effect
  19. What organs are most at risk for injury in diabetics?
    Kidneys and eyes
  20. What is the most common complication of diabetics requiring hospitalization?
    Foot problems
  21. What are the functions of supporting cells in the nervous system?
    Protect nervous system and provide metabolic support for the neurons
  22. Ion channels in nervous system cells generate action potentials in the cells. What are the ion channels guarded by?
    Voltage dependent gates
  23. What is the most common type of synapse?
    Chemical synapse
  24. Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?
    In the axon terminal
  25. Neuromodulators can produce slower and longer-lasting changes in membrane excitability by acting on postsynaptic receptors. What do neuromodulators do?
    Alter the release or response to neurotransmitters
  26. The basis for assessing the function of any peripheral nerve lies in what?
    Peripheral nerves contain processes of more than one of the four afferent and three efferent cell columns
  27. What is the spinal cord supported by?
    THe pia mater and the denticulate ligaments
  28. One of the spinal motor reflexes is the myotatic reflex. What does this reflex do for the body?
    Provides information about prorioception
  29. What is one of the functions of the cerebellum?
    Coordinates smooth and accurate movements of the body
  30. What can the brain not do during REM?
    acquire new sensory information
  31. What hormone does the pineal gland synthesize and release under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  32. The multiple sleep latencty test (MSLT) is a diagnostic sleep study used to evaluate daytime sleepiness. What result of an MSLT would be considered abnormal?
    4 minutes
  33. A diagnosis of restless leg syndrome based is based on a history of what?
    symptoms that become worse at rest
  34. Sleepwalking can occur in both adults and children. Typically, what does someone who is sleepwalking do?
    Refuse to respond to communication efforts of other people
  35. What medication can have a stimulating effect that interferes with sleep?
  36. In what disease is often seen more frequent periods of nighttime awakening and daytime sleeping?
  37. Objective tinnitus is tinnitus that someone else can hear. What does the tinnitus that is caused by vascular disorders sound like?
  38. What disease is associated with conductive hearing loss?
    Paget disease
  39. What is used to test conductive and sensorineural hearing loss?
    Tuning fork
  40. What is the major cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children?
    Genetic causes
  41. Presbycusis is degenerative hearing loss associated with aging. What is the first symptom of this disorder?
    Reduction is ability to understand speech
  42. What is the yellow bone marrow largely composed of?
    Adipose cells
  43. Parathyroid hormone functions to maintain serum calcium levels. How does it fulfill this function?
    • Initiates calcium release from the bone
    • Enhances intestinal absorption of calcium
    • Activates conservation of calcium by the kidney
  44. Rheumatic disorders attack the joints of the body. Which joints are most frequently attacked by rheumatic disorders?
  45. What are the tendons and ligaments of the joint capsule sensitive to?
    Position and movement
  46. What is the function of a bursae?
    Prevent friction on a tendon
  47. What is compartment syndrome?
    A condition of increased pressure within a limited space that compromises circulation and function of the tissues within the space
  48. What is the most common site in the skeletal system for tuberculosis to be found?
  49. What is the primary clinical feature of osetosarcoma?
    Nighttime awakening
  50. In the elderly, what is the least expensive and most effective treatment for long term osteomalacia?
    Vitamin D rich and exposure to mid-day sun
  51. What medication can cause rickets in an adult?
    Aluminum-sparing antacids
  52. What is one of the most commonly occuring symptoms in the early stages of SLE?