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What is chemistry?
The study of science composition, structure, property and reaction of matter especially in atomic and molecular level systems.
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
- are categorized into (element and compound)
- a pure substance always has a definite composition by mass.
- example of elements are cooper, gold and oxygen.
- is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means to simpler substance.
- Ex. of Noble metals:
- Au=gold, Ag= silver, Ag=platinum, Pt=platinum
- Ex. Noble gases
- distinct substance that contains 2 or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass. Can be decomposed chemically into simpler substance ex.
- H2SO4 =Sulfic Acid/ H2O= water
- HCl=Hydro Chloric Acid
- NaCl= Sodium Chloraide
always contains 2 or more substance that can be present in varying amounts. The components of a mixture do not lose their identities and may be separated by physical means.
- uniform in appears(looks the same)
- ex. saline solution= NaCl, cant tell that water has salt once you boil it, salt is left is over.
- able to tell difference (has residual) in mixture of drink, ex. Coffee,Koolaid,
- anything bigger 1<nm = 10.9 is affected by gravity, so it will seattle to the bottom and can tell the difference.
- are solids at room temperature (mercury is an exception)
- high luster
- Good conductors of heat and electricity
- unlike metals, are not lustrous
- poor conductors of heat and electricity
have properties that are intermediate that contain both metals and nonmetals, this are semiconductors
- smallest uncharged individual unit of compound formed by the union of 2 or more atoms.
- Water is a typical molecular compound.(H2O)
- this molecular cannot be further subdivided w/o
- destroying the water molecule and forming hydrogen and oxygen.
- Molecular has (non metal+non metal)
- is a positively and negatively charged atom or group of atoms. Is held together by the attrition forces that exist between positive and negative charge ions.
- cation (cat-eye-on) is a positively charged ion
- anion (an-eye-on) is a negatively charged ion
- Ion compound is (metal +non metal) NaCl =0
- are inherent characters of a substance that can be determined w/o altering its composition.
- color, taste, odor, state of matter, density,
- melting point, boiling point
- changes the structure of object but not the chemical ex. ice to water to gas
- describes the ability of substance to form a new substance either by reaction with other substance or by decomposition
- ex. Rust on metal
- are changes in physical properties (such as size, shape and density) or changes in state of matter w/o change in composition ex. H2O
- ice to water to gas
- a change producing producing products that differ in composition from the original substance change the chemical structure and the way it looks.
- ex. H2 + O2 = H2O
law of conservation of mass
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed though it can be transformed from one to another
the ability of matter to work
stored energy, energy that an object possesses due to it relative position
- released energy, is energy that matter possesses due to its motion.
- ex. when water behind is released and allowed to flow, its potential energy is changed to kinetic energy.