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What are the three important cycles in the atmosphere?
- Water Cycle
- Nitrogen Cycle
- Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Cycle
Why is water a universal solvent?
It has strong polarity (charged at opposite ends)
What is an example of a non polar material?
What is waters liquid range?
What material/substance has a nice range for organic chemistry?
Really cold water can't _______
Stay at the bottom
What are 4 unique things about water?
- Universal solvent
- Significant liquid range
- Most dense a few degrees above the freezing point
- High heat capacity
How does water stores __________ really well
What are 2 proofs that water is most dense a few degrees above the freezing point?
- Really cold water can't stay at the bottom
- Ice floats
What is water essential for?
What is a specific name for when water holds heat in the atmosphere?
The greenhouse effect
What is the specific name for when water holds heat in the oceans?
What percentage of the atmosphere is water vapor?
What does lake effect do to the region affected?
- More moisture
- Moderation of climate
- Reigns in extremes
- Slows down initial blooms
What percentage of tart cherries in the world does MI produce?
What percentage of the worlds blueberry production does MI produce?
In apple production, Michigan is ___ in the nation
In grape production, MI is ____ in the nation.
What about greenhouse/nursery production?
What percentage of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas?
What is the symbol for nitrogen gas?
What is nitrogen gas essential for?
Protein molecules are the essential unit of ____ and ____ in all living things
Nitrogen cycles through the ______
What percentage of the atmosphere is oxygen gas?
What is oxygen essential for?
Where does oxygen play a part in energy consumption?
- In animals
- In combustion engines
What is the symbol for oxygen gas?
Oxygen cycles through the _______
What is a polar vortex?
A persistent, large scale cyclone located near the Earth's poles
Where in the atmosphere is the polar vortex located?
In the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere
What has the polar vortex created?
An ozone depletion or hole over Antarctica
What is ozone?
A blue gas with a strong odor
Where and how is ozone made?
In the upper atmosphere, out of Oxygen atoms
__________ tears oxygen molecules (O2) into oxygen atoms
What do oxygen molecules exsist as?
Clear odorless gas
An oxygen atom joins a ____ molecule to form _____ (____)
- Oxygen (O2) forms ozone (O3)
Out of every 10 million atmosphere molecules, how many are O2? How many are O3?
What does ozone reemit UV electromagnetic radation as?
When ozone absorbs UV radiation and turns it into infrared radation, what does this process do?
It heats the atmosphere around the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere
What seems do be the trend in ozone levels?
Mainly downward, but over the past 20 years, we can see that there is a seasonal trend as well.
When is ozone generation less effective?
At lower temperatures.
What does warmer weather prevent?
What contributes to ozone depletion?
How do volcanos contribute to ozone depletion?
- By pumping hydrogen sulfide into the air
- By pumping aerosols into the air
Which has a shorter life span, H2S or CFC's?
H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide)
What is H2F's lifespan?
About 3 years, and H2F has only a short term effect.
What is CFC-12's lifespan?
What is CFC-11's lifespan?
What kind of particles do aerosols have?
Micro millimeters spherical particles
What do aerosals act as?
A catalytic surface for CFC produced chlorine molecules to deteriorate ozone
What is the magnetosphere?
The area above the earth where the Earth's magnetic field operates
At what height does the magnetosphere start?
On the Sun side, how high up does the magnetosphere extend to?
Extends to about 4000 km
On which side does the magnetosphere extend farther, the sun side, or the dark side?
The dark side
Why does the magnetosphere extend farther on the dark side?
Solar winds make the difference
What is the solar wind?
A stream of high speed charged particles
What is the sun's atmosphere?
How fast do the solar winds travel?
450km/sec or more (2 or 3 days)
What does the solar wind consist of?
Protons and electrons
What are the Van Allen Radiation Belts?
2 belts of high energy particles trapped by earths magnetic field
What does the smaller inner Van Allen Radiation Belt consist of?
High energy protons
What does the larger outer Van Allen Radiation Belt consist of?
High energy electrons
What is weather?
The state of atmospheric conditions in an area
What causes changes in weather?
Air movements in the troposphere
What makes the air warm?
- Not the sun directly.
- The sun heats the ground, which heats the air.
What are air movements due to?
Uneven heating of the earth's surface by the Sun.
Why does the Earth heat unevenly?
- It is curved.
- Its surface is made of different materials.
- The earth is spinning on its axis
- The earth is revolving around the sun
When the Earth revolves around the Sun, what else is happening? (Other characteristics.)
- It is tilted on its axis.
- It is following an elliptical path.
What does uneven heating of the Earth's surface cause? (4)
- Temperature--as air warms temp rises
- Capacity to hold water increases
- Density--decreases with temp
- Pressure--increases with density
What is a barometer?
A device used to measure the pressure of air
What indicates a changing air mass?
A changing barometric pressure
What does atmospheric air pressure determine?
- Weather patterns
When does atmospheric air pressure rapidly decrease?
At sea level, what is the atmospheric pressure?
At an altitude of 5.5 km?
- 1000 millibars (mb)
- 500 mb
What influences air pressure?
when air molecules are spread furthur apart, what happens?
- There is a lower density=lower gravitational attraction
- Lower pressure
When colder air molecules are closer, what happens?
- Higher density=higher gravitational attraction
- Higher pressure
What do changes in air pressure indicate?
Weather changes in air masses over a given area
What means stormy weather?
Increasing air pressure.
What means fair weather?
Declining air pressure
What is an air mass?
Relatively uniform (horizontally) in its temperature and relative humidity over a large region.
what are air masses developed by?
The surface features they form over.
Continental tropical air is _____ and ____
Continental polar air is _____ and ____
Maritime tropical air is _____ and ______
Maritime polar air is _____ and ______
- 1. warm and dry
- 2. cool and dry
- 3. warm and humid
- 4. cool and humid
What is the point where air masses meet?
What is air masss identified by?
What determines temperature and humidity?
The surface that they form over
Where do Continental Tropical air masses form over?
Where do Continental Polar masses form over?
Where do Maritime Tropical masses form?
over Southern Seas
Where do Maritime Polar masses form?
Over Northern Seas
What is a cold front?
A cold air mass.
What are 5 things associated with cold fronts?
- Brief intense rain
- Strong Winds
What are tornados?
Cyclones of rising warm air. They rotate counter clockwise.
What is the scale used to rate tornados?
Fujita scale F (0-5)
What are the two ways that tornados do damage?
- Winds up to 250mph
- Low pressure
what are the wind speeds of F2s?
- Up to 157 mph
- (A cat 5 hurricane starts at 155 mph)
what does a warm front bring?
It is slow moving, and brings a light steady rain.
What is an occluded front?
Cold air mass catches up with a warm air mass.
What happens when the sun light shines on the surface of the Earth?
- 1. visible light is absorbed (by the surface)
- 2. Infrared radiation is emitted (by land)
- 3. Air is warmed (by land)
- 4. Warm air expands
- 5. Expanding air rises
- 6. Expanding air cools
- 7. When air cools to form dew point, clouds form
What happens as air cools?
It loses its capacity to hold water
When the capacity to hold water decreases, what happens?
- Clouds form when the air reaches the dew point temperature
- Relative humidity increases
What are the 3 main types of clouds?
What does nimbo mean? Alto?
What is a super cell?
A cumulus cloud that has grown very large?
What kind of clouds are not associated with a front?
How many Super Cells produce tornadoes?
3 in 10
What is a Hurricane?
A low pressure storm system that forms over tropical seas.
What must be the temperature of the ocean for a hurricane to form?
80oF to 150 feet
How are hurricanes powered?
by heat released from water condensation
How far from the equator must hurricanes be to start spinning?
How are hurricanes formed?
- Low pressure air is warm and lifts moisture.
- Water condenses on dew point dust.
- Condensing water releases heat.
- Expands air furthur.
- Decreases pressure further.
- Increasing winds increase surface evaporation.
Where are winds strongest in a hurricane?
Closest to the eye.
What is a storm surge?
Low pressure, waves due to wind, high tides
What is dew?
When water condenses on surface features that are at the dew point temp.
What is fog?
Dew on dust in the air near the ground--a type of cloud
What is a cloud?
Dew on dust in the air
What is rain?
Dew on the dust that gets so heavy, it falls from the sky
What is sleet?
Raindrops that fall from a cloud and freeze before they hit the ground.
What is freezing rain?
The ground is at freezing temps and rain falls and freezes
What is frost?
water crystals growing on surface features?
What are cirrus clouds?
Frost on dust way up high.