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Two functions of the circulatory system
- 1. Delivers O2
- 2. Removes waste (CO2) to lungs and kidneys for excretion
What is epistaxis?
Definition of shock
Failure of the circulatory system to adequately perfuse the body
Decreased blood flow through an organ; if prolonged can result in shock
shock resulting from low blood volume caused by excessive bleeding, GI illness, fever, diabetes, etc.
Signs and symptoms of blood loss
Constriction of veins, arteries, increased heart rate, rate of breathing.
Effects of epinephrine
- 1. cardiac output is increased
- 2. blood flow to the brain increases
- 3. pupils dilate
- 4. blood flow is redistributed (causes pale, cool, clammy skin)
- 5. respiratory rate increases
What is anemia?
low supply of hemoglobin
Describe arterial bleeding
spurting, pulsatile, red.
Describe capillary bleeding
continuous, oozing, dark red
Describe venous bleeding
Continuous, dark red or purple, superficial flow
Methods of bleeding control
- 1. direct pressure
- 2. elevation
- 3. pressure points
- 4. splinting if applicable
- 5. tourniquet
Epistaxis can result from what 4 things?
- 1. trauma to the skull
- 2. digital trauma (nose picking)
- 3. medical conditions (high blood pressure, sinusitis, etc)
- 4. Coagulation or clotting disorders
Cardiogenic shock is what?
caused when the heart can no longer pump blood adequately resulting in a decrease in cardiac output and then a decrease in perfusion
Signs of cardiogenic shock
- edema, distended veins, (back up in systemic side),
- or shortness of breath, noisy breathing caused by fluid in the lungs.
Patient positions for cardiogenic shock
Position of comfort. Sitting if tolerated, aids breathing. Supine if pt is weak with AMS.
Conditions that cause vasodilatory shock
anaphalaxis and spinal cord injuries
Define vasodilatory shock
when the vascular system loses its ability to constrict and blood pressure falls
resulting from massive infection caused mainly from vasodilation. Further complicated by leakage of fluid through the blood vessel walls, resulting in hypovolemia
Basic treatment for shock
- 1. ABCs
- 2. High concentration O2
- 3. If applicable, splint bone or joint injuries, immobilize on backboard
- 4. Maintain body temp with blankets
Signs of shock mneumonic
- V-vomiting and nausea
- P-pulse, weak and rapid
- A-AMS, including anxiety
- R-respirations, shallow and rapid
- C-cool and cyanotic skin
- B-BP increases early and decreases late
- E-eyes blank or dialated