-Lost of the resources that need to be mined are not directly benefiting the government because another company or country comes in to make a deal saying they will build roads, schools, hospitals and provide food if they give them the rights to natural resources.
The dimensions of sustainability
1. Technical and economical viability (success)
2. Social acceptance
3. Carry capacity (eco-centric concern)
Will technology save the world?
-Technology is not nesseserally the way to go. -It can even do a huge amount of damage to us.
-We need science and technology to solve problems that have been created by science and technology
-degrading the land so bad that it becomes a desert.
-It’s different from naturally occurring deserts.
-Sand storms in Beijing, China
-The sandstorms are so bad that sometimes they travel into Korea.
-17% of China is now desert.
-Farming and misuse of water contribute to the desertification of china.
Desertification: Agobe Desert
-expanded because the trees were cut out and the land was turned into farming land.
-Because the trees were taken out, the temperature increases
-no trees to stop the winds, the desert expanded.
-Planting trees back would logically stop the desert from expanding and prevent sand storms.
-Because they planted fast growing trees, which were not the trees that were native to the desert, these fast growing trees were water dependent.
-These trees would suck out the water out of the ground and contribute to desertification even more.
-Some trees that were planted were cut down because people were still cold and needed to fuel their homes to keep them warm.
-Soil is continually being degraded by pollution so the trees are not growing as well because the soil is bad.
*plants must have the correct root system for the environment it's in
-can reach underground for water
-hard pull out
-spread out horizontally as tall as the tree is. Requires more surface water
3.Deep tap root
-long roots that can reach out all the way to the ground water.
-These roots hold the soil together and keep them in place.
-All of these tap roots provide nutrients to the soil
4. Succulent root
-roots you find in hot places.
-Sufficient on surface water
-trees can grow through trees
-happens from overgrazing and overplanting
Over cultivation of the Sahel
-Sahel was a productive area in sub Saharan Africa.
-Because of overplanting, the soils and the area depleted.
-Mechanical cultivation does a lot of soil damage because it goes deeper into the ground.
-Removes the biomass.
-All of the weight of the cattle compacts and tramples the ground.
-South Africa is using Lesotho’s water for money even though they need the water to survive.
-Lesotho is in permanent crisis.
-1 in 3 has HIV and Aids
-90% of farmers have no water reserves
-Lesotho is surrounded by south Africa.
Cattle vs. Sheep
-Sheep do not belong in Africa, they have been introduced
-Sheep graze so intensively that they cut so close to the root that nothing can graze afterwards.
-Cows graze from the top like the law mower.
Rills and Erosion
-Rills: So much water had gone down that it carves itself into the soil.
-this creates an extremely hard desert like surface, preventing things from growing.
-giant containers of water
-As people are moving their cattle around, they will have access to water.
-It’s made to encourage the cattle for moving around.
-Even though it’s in their best interest to keep moving around, they collect around the source of water, grazing all the grass around that area and finishing the water.
-Native tribe that rotate their cattle according to laws of nature.
-The cows know how to find the water, so the masai follow the cows and rotate around to prevent overgrazing
-Fencing off the cattle contributes to overgrazing.
-Just because it works in one country, it’s not going to work in another country.
-People come in and teach natives how to be better according to what they do in their own country, without taking the time to learn what this environment needs.
-Annual drought period contributes to overgrazing and sick cattle.
-You can see the border between the two from space.
-When it stops being green, its Haiti. -Reforestation had failed because people cut down the trees to keep warm
-Haiti is in poverty especially after getting their independence.
-Once you have so much devastation it’s hard to get out of it.
-Hurricanes and mud slides are common in Haiti.
Green wall of china vs. Green wall of Sahel
1. Green wall of Sahel
-Sahel is not tree replanting
-focusing on agricultural land security, food and sustainability.
-It’s part of the plan to reduce poverty
2. Green wall of china
- planting the trees to prevent from the desert from coming in and protecting the people of China.
-Planting around the vegetation made a huge difference and let the trees grow and the environment thrive.
-The reason the Aral sea disappeared was because of the USSR redirecting the water from the Aral Sea.
Classifying developing nations
-A country has a say whether it can be classified as developing or not.
-Classified as a developing nations gives you perks, including getting aid.
-There are nations that you’d think is a developing nations but they are not.
-You can’t go back retroactively and declare development.
-Khasakastan is a developing nation but not classified as such.
Owens Lake, California
Sucked the water out of the lake for LA and now it’s not there.