Psych Unit 1

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Trekofstarsx
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Psych Unit 1
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2013-08-19 23:35:01
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Psych 1 Unit 1
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  1. Plato
    Brain is the seat of mental processes
  2. Aristotle-coins what phrase?
    DeAnima. Coins phrase “tabula rasa”, meaning that the body exists to serve thesoul
  3. Avicenna: 11th Century
    Tabula rasa at birth (blank slates)
  4. Descartes: 17th Century

    What term did he argue for?

    Give an example of the term
    ·         Rene Descartes argues for dualism

    • Dualism: The mind and body are separate, independent entities
    • ·         Example: Pineal gland: The Pineal gland is the interface between mind/body (Descartes) as a result of its location in the brain.
  5. Locke

    Argued that the mind is what?
    Tabula rasa
  6. David Hume (18th century)

    Empiricism:
    The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
  7. Immanuel Kant:

    What is the source of morality and what structures our world?
    Human concepts and categories structure our view of the world and its laws, and that reason is the source of morality.
  8. Franz Joseph Gall (19th century)

    Phrenology:
    ·         Phrenology-Different functions served by different parts of the brain
  9. Wilhelm Wundt:
    • Publishes first experimental psychology textbook and opens first psychology research lab at U of Leipzig
    • ·         Asked people to introspect- look within themselves
  10. G. Stanley Hall (1880s)
    Opens 1st American psychology research lab at John Hopkins
  11. William James:

    1) Functionalism
    2) Psychosocial Function
    1) School of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

    2) difference between physical stimulus and its perceived properties
  12. Freud:

    1) Psychoanalytic Theory
    Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychotherapy
  13. Edward B. Titchener

    1) Structuralism
    ·         Structuralism was a school of thought that sought to identify the components of the mind . Structuralists believed that the way to learn about the brain and its functions was to break the mind down into its most basic elements
  14. Darwin

    1) We have a common ancestor, therefore we share
    Similar characteristics
  15. Galton:
    Human intelligence

    Also, noted that the offspring of accomplished people were smart
  16. Binet (1905)
    Developed the first useful intelligence test
  17. John Watson-Behaviorism
    ·         Behaviorism: Behaviorism is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning·         Strong assumption of empiricism (i.e. tabula rasa)
  18. Noam Chonsky
    Psychologist that specialized in language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
  19. B.F. Skinner
    Wrote a book on how language is learned through operant conditioning

    (a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences)
  20. John Garcia
    ·         Showed that rats would easily learn associations between certain types of stimuli, but not others
  21. Cognitive Revolution: 1950s

    1) What happened?
    2) Cognitivism
    • ·         1950s, intellectual exchange between fields
    • ·         “Cognitivism” currently dominant paradigm in psychology àStudies mental states
  22. Clinical Psychology:
    • ·         Helping people with behavior and mental problems
    • ·         Ex: Addiction, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, etc.
    • ·         Have a PhD or a PsyD
  23. Forensic Psychologist:
    Provide advice and consultation to police, lawyers, and courts àClinical counseling with additional training in legal issues
  24. Human Factors Specialist (Ergonomist)
    • ·         Tries to facilitate the operation of machinery so that ordinary people can use it efficiently and safely
    • ·         (Design machinery for soldiers, like cameras on Apaches for military)
  25. Cross-Cultural Psychology
    Compares behavior of people from different cultures
  26. MD requirements
    4 years of residency training
  27. Psychoanalysts:

    1)
    2)
    Anyone who attempts to uncover unconscious thoughts and feelings or graduates of 6-8 year programs in institutes of psychoanalysis
  28. Clinical Social Worker:

    1) What degree?
    2) Why are they getting psychologist patients?
    Masters in social work with specialization in psychological problems

    ·         Getting psychologist patients because they charge less per hour
  29. Counseling Psychologist
    • Help people with decisions and problems (PhD, PsyD, EdD)
    • Differs from clinical psychologists because they deal with decision and not emotional distress.
  30. Biological Psychology
    ·         Animal models, neuroimaging
  31. Cognitive Psychology:
    ·         Pursues an information-processing account of perception, attention, memory, reasoning

    Ex: Cognitive behavioral therapy
  32. Struup Test
    Reading colors with other names (the color list) meaning of word with color stimulation
  33. Developmental Psychology:
    • ·         How does the human mind change across a lifespan?
    • ·         EX: How do children’s morals/cognition develop?
  34. Educational Psychology:
    ·         How students learn best
  35. Evolutionary Psychology:
    • ·         Views the mind as a set of adaptations that have evolved
    • ·         Ex: Darwin, natural selection
  36. Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    ·         Studies how to maximize human output in the working environment
  37. Personal Psychology
    ·         Fundamental traits that people differ on
  38. Social Psychology
    ·         How people think about and relate to others
  39. Psychology
    Systematic study of behavior and experience
  40. 1920’s Theme:

    1) Psychologists changed from studying what to what because this thing is unobseravle
    • ·         Psychologists became disenchanted with the idea of studying the mind because the mind is unobservable.
    • After this, psychologists studied behavior
  41. “It Depends” Statement:
    Different people have a different psychological makeup
  42. Factors that can affect behavior at any given moment:
    • ·         Time of day
    • ·         Temperature
    • ·         How recently someone ate
    • ·         Ex: Elevator hot coffee, warm person
  43. Determinism
    Idea that every event has a cause, or determinant, that one could observe or measure
  44. Free Will
    • Belief that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions
    • ·         Scientists question the idea of free will
  45. Will
    Product of your heredity and experiences
  46. Dualism:

    1) Define
    2) What does dualism contradict and why?
    Mind is separate from the brain and somehow controls the brain and the rest of the body.

    • However, this view contradicts the law of conservation and energy because
    • if the mind isn’t composed of matter and energy, it can’t do anything
  47. Monism
    View that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain. That is, all mental activity (decisions) are brain activity

    ·         Brain activity and thoughts are the same thing
  48. Nature-Nurture Issue:

    1) Define
    2) Give example
    How do differences in behavior relate to the differences in heredity or environment?·         Ex: Boys play with toy guns, girls play with dolls
  49. Basic Research
    Seeks theoretical knowledge for its own sake
  50. Applied Research
    Deals with practical problems
  51. Positive Psychologist
    Study behavior that makes people successful

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