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Brain is the seat of mental processes
Aristotle-coins what phrase?
DeAnima. Coins phrase “tabula rasa”, meaning that the body exists to serve thesoul
Avicenna: 11th Century
Tabula rasa at birth (blank slates)
Descartes: 17th Century
What term did he argue for?
Give an example of the term
· Rene Descartes argues for dualism
- Dualism: The mind and body are separate, independent entities
- · Example: Pineal gland: The Pineal gland is the interface between mind/body (Descartes) as a result of its location in the brain.
Argued that the mind is what?
David Hume (18th century)
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
What is the source of morality and what structures our world?
Human concepts and categories structure our view of the world and its laws, and that reason is the source of morality.
Franz Joseph Gall (19th century)
· Phrenology-Different functions served by different parts of the brain
- Publishes first experimental psychology textbook and opens first psychology research lab at U of Leipzig
- · Asked people to introspect- look within themselves
G. Stanley Hall (1880s)
Opens 1st American psychology research lab at John Hopkins
2) Psychosocial Function
1) School of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
2) difference between physical stimulus and its perceived properties
1) Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychotherapy
Edward B. Titchener
· Structuralism was a school of thought that sought to identify the components of the mind . Structuralists believed that the way to learn about the brain and its functions was to break the mind down into its most basic elements
1) We have a common ancestor, therefore we share
Also, noted that the offspring of accomplished people were smart
Developed the first useful intelligence test
· Behaviorism: Behaviorism is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning· Strong assumption of empiricism (i.e. tabula rasa)
Psychologist that specialized in language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
Wrote a book on how language is learned through operant conditioning
(a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences)
· Showed that rats would easily learn associations between certain types of stimuli, but not others
Cognitive Revolution: 1950s
1) What happened?
- · 1950s, intellectual exchange between fields
- · “Cognitivism” currently dominant paradigm in psychology àStudies mental states
- · Helping people with behavior and mental problems
- · Ex: Addiction, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, etc.
- · Have a PhD or a PsyD
Provide advice and consultation to police, lawyers, and courts àClinical counseling with additional training in legal issues
Human Factors Specialist (Ergonomist)
- · Tries to facilitate the operation of machinery so that ordinary people can use it efficiently and safely
- · (Design machinery for soldiers, like cameras on Apaches for military)
Compares behavior of people from different cultures
4 years of residency training
Anyone who attempts to uncover unconscious thoughts and feelings or graduates of 6-8 year programs in institutes of psychoanalysis
Clinical Social Worker:
1) What degree?
2) Why are they getting psychologist patients?
Masters in social work with specialization in psychological problems
· Getting psychologist patients because they charge less per hour
- Help people with decisions and problems (PhD, PsyD, EdD)
- Differs from clinical psychologists because they deal with decision and not emotional distress.
· Animal models, neuroimaging
· Pursues an information-processing account of perception, attention, memory, reasoning
Ex: Cognitive behavioral therapy
Reading colors with other names (the color list) meaning of word with color stimulation
- · How does the human mind change across a lifespan?
- · EX: How do children’s morals/cognition develop?
· How students learn best
- · Views the mind as a set of adaptations that have evolved
- · Ex: Darwin, natural selection
· Studies how to maximize human output in the working environment
· Fundamental traits that people differ on
· How people think about and relate to others
Systematic study of behavior and experience
1) Psychologists changed from studying what to what because this thing is unobseravle
- · Psychologists became disenchanted with the idea of studying the mind because the mind is unobservable.
- After this, psychologists studied behavior
“It Depends” Statement:
Different people have a different psychological makeup
Factors that can affect behavior at any given moment:
- · Time of day
- · Temperature
- · How recently someone ate
- · Ex: Elevator hot coffee, warm person
Idea that every event has a cause, or determinant, that one could observe or measure
- Belief that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions
- · Scientists question the idea of free will
Product of your heredity and experiences
2) What does dualism contradict and why?
Mind is separate from the brain and somehow controls the brain and the rest of the body.
- However, this view contradicts the law of conservation and energy because
- if the mind isn’t composed of matter and energy, it can’t do anything
View that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain. That is, all mental activity (decisions) are brain activity
· Brain activity and thoughts are the same thing
2) Give example
How do differences in behavior relate to the differences in heredity or environment?· Ex: Boys play with toy guns, girls play with dolls
Seeks theoretical knowledge for its own sake
Deals with practical problems
Study behavior that makes people successful