Geog 121:Lecture 4
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Water as a resource to sustain life.
- -We can only use 2.7% of water even though there is a lot of water in the world.
- -Water is one thing that can dissolve everything given enough time.
- -At times of natural disaster or contamination of water, the body of water affected always would clean itself
How much salty water is there in the world?
How much fresh water is there in the world?
2.5% and only 0.5% is usable
How much of the 0.5% usable freshwater does each section account for?
- -70% irrigation
- -20% industry
- -10% household
How much has the demand for and use of freshwater increased over the past half century?
-tripled as world population grows
Experts predict that by 2025 global water needs will increase with _______ required for cities and_______ for growing crops
Experts predict that by 2025 global water needs will increase with 40% more required for cities and 20% for growing crops
Major rivers drying up
- -Yellow rivers
Over the next 20 years average water supply per person is estimated to_____________
- Over the next 20 years average water supply per person is estimated to drop by a third,
- -endangering human health, agriculture and the environment
Water volume in the Aral
- -dropped by 80% since 1960s
- -due to extensive irrigation primarily for cotton production
Water levels in Lake Victoria
-below normal and lowest ever since September 1961
Asia Pacific region water access
- -in 2002 82% had access
- -in 1990 74% had access
- -shared between Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon
Impact of Challawa Gorge Dam, Nigeria
- -Built in 1993
- -It’s improved the water supply for irrigation, meaning you can have more food and feed more people
- -During the heavy seasons of rain, the area upstream gets flooded.
- -In this case, the area downstream from the dam does not receive enough water
Lake Nakuru, Kenya
- -Very diverse in animal and bird species
- -Internationally protected sight
- -The land around the lake got degradated
Lake Victoria, Uganda
- -People build water hyacinth and by 1990, you could not move through the river.
- -It cut off the oxygen and caused problems with the fish.
- -Clogged the drinking water pipes.
- -Mosquitos and other disease carrying insects infected the area.
- -Attempts to get rid of the water hyacinth mechanically and manually.
- -Eventually insect predators were brought in to eat the plant, even though it was not a native species.
- -Population growth around lake Victoria has been higher than anywhere in Africa because of the resources provided by the lake.
- -Because of the introduction of the Nile perch (fish) population boomed.
- -The only thing is that all the Nile perch is being shipped out of the country, mostly Russia.
- -Water levels in lake Victoria is below normal and lowest since September 1961
- -As of 2013 it has started to rise a little bit.
Changes due to dam construction in Lesotho
- -The Lesotho Highlands Water Project diverts water from South Africa’s urban and industrial use
- -Lesotho directs water but not does not get water itself, instead it gets electricity.
Lake Hamoun, Iran
- -Redirecting water
- -natural dry up because of natural dry drought conditions.
Changes due to Three Gorges Dam Construction Dam, China
- -It was constructed to provide energy.
- -It’s able to provide as much power as 15 nuclear power plants.
- -They hoped that it would control a lot of the flooding in the area saving people from dying.
- -In order to build the dam, they submerged a lot of the villages that have been around for a long time
- -The dam is cracking and there are other problems associated with it.
- -In 2010, the Chinese government publically stated they made a mistake with building the dam
Yangtze River China
- -is so polluted that it’s been described as irreversible.
- -Inadequate sewage
- -Industrial pollution
- -Pollution due to rapid population growth.
- -River is responsible for 35% of fresh water fish supply that has been ingested with all of the pollution of the river.
- -80% of the river is experiencing erosion now and 40 tons of sediment is being dumped into the river.
Ataturk Dam, Turkey
- -Dam provides power and irrigation water.
- -It has turned once arid area into a nice green area.
Impact of Al Wahda reservoir in Morocco
- -The rain rate in Morocco varies strongly from one region to the next.
- -Moroccan government built a series of dam that transfers water from one region to another depending on which area gets how much water.
Mesopotamian Marshlands, Iraq
- -1973-2000 most of the wetlands disappeared because Sadam Housain decided that the way of getting rid of the people who were against him was to drain the wetlands around which these people lived
- -It changed the ecosystem and affected some migratory birds
- -2003 Water returns to the Mesopotamian Marshlands
- -2004 greening of some of the marshlands in recent years
Lake Sibaya, South Africa
- -Lakeshore is home to the only known species of a rare climbing orchid.
- -Crocodile population decline primarily due to poaching
- -Increase of cultivation of marginal lands around the lake
- -Concern that this lake is going to vanish pretty soon due to people around the lake having little concern for the lake
Lake Karachy, Russia
- -Dumping liquid radioactive waste into the river that extends into the Antarctic ocean
- -International community asked to stop dumping waste into the river that dumps out into the ocean.
- -Then they dumped it into the lake.
- -Later the lake dried out and the winds picked up all the radioactive waste spreading it to the people living around it.
- -It contained more radioactive waste than Chernobyl
- -Then they filled the area with concrete blocks to stop the sediment from moving, sealing the lake.
- -The radiation has made it into the underground water, contaminating it.
- 1. Guanqiao Lake, Hubei Province, China (untreated industrial waste killing the fish. Water shortage)
- 2. Riachuela River, Brazil (largest open pit toilet in the world, taking in sewage water) 3. Sukinda Valley, India (polluted and untreated water)
- 4. Citarum River, Indonesia (so much garbage in the river that you cannot see the water. People fish for garbage in the water, making profit off of it)
- 5. Yellow River, China (chemical spills, pollution. 1/3rd is unusable but it’s still being used)
- 6. Cuyahoga River, US (river on fire)
- -Declining water levels
- -Raw sewage dumped into lake
- -Car wash pollution, soap pollution
- -Algae reduces the amount of oxygen in the lake causing the fish to die, hurting the fishing industry
- -Fuel spillage from the water transportations
- -Hard to get reform passed because the lake serves 3 countries and trying to get them to agree is hard because of different political situation in each country
- -6 countries in charge of the river China in charge because it’s on top.
- -Cutting off the fish supply because of dam building Mekong
- -Dolphin dying off because of pollution
- -Homelessness by displacing and flooding
- -Outside entity oversees how the river is being shared by all 6 countries
Guder River (video)
-3 neighbors trying to share water from the river result in some fights and eventually courts resolving how much water should each neighborhood get
Water well pump in Ethiopia
- -Immediate access to the water
- -No walking for miles to get the water
- -Improved hygiene and health due to water --No getting sick because of drinking of river water
- -Women use the water at home so they are to regulate how water is used and make sure water does not get contaminated
- -Washing hands and building toilet sink holes to improve sanitation
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