Psych Unit 2
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Study of changes in humans over the course of an entire lifespan
Early Neurological Development
1) 16th day-what forms?
2) Continues curving to form what?
3) 21st day- what forms?
- · At around the 16th day of development, the neural plate forms
- · Continues curving to form the neural groove
- · By the 21st day, the neural tube is formed
1) What becomes the brain, what becomes the spine?
2) By 7 weeks, what has divided?
- · The front “rostral” part of the neural tube becomes the brain, and the rest becomes the spine.
- · By 7 weeks, the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon have divided.
2) Give example
- · Time when organism has heightened sensitivity to particular stimuli that are necessary for development of a particular skill
- · Example: Imprinting in geese (when a geese recognizes its mother)
· We are prepared to learn a language from early childhood through puberty, but its very difficult after that
1) Behavior is based on what
Schemata (organized ways of interacting with objects
Applying an old schema to a new problem
Modifying a schema to fit a new problem
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development:
1) Age Range
- · Ages 0-2
- · Children understand the world primarily in terms of physical sensations'
- · No abstract reasoning
- · No perspective-taking
- · Exploring the environment Developing object permanence
· is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed
1) Age Range
- · Ages 2-7
- · Still an egocentric view
- · Difficulty distinguishing appearance from reality
- · Lacks concept of conservation· Develops theory of mind
Concrete Operational Stage:
1) Age range
- · Ages 7-11
- · Child understands conservation tasks
- · Child can perform logical operations on concrete objects but can’t handle abstract
- · Doesn’t plan actions in advance
- · Ex: Children at this stage think asking how to move a mountain of whipped cream across a city is a silly question
Formal Operational Stage:
1) Age range
- · Age 11 onwards· Plans in advance
- · Hypothetical and abstract reasoning
- · Logical and deductive reasoning
- · Ex: Try a combo of five white liquids to make a yellow liquid
Theory of Psychosocial Development (Erikson)
Name the conflict
3) Preschool child
6) Young adult
7) Middle adult
8) Old adult
- 1) Basic trust v. mistrust
- 2) Autonomy v. shame and doubt
- 3) Initiative v. guilt
- 4) Industry v. inferiority
- 5) Identity v. role confusion
- 6) Intimacy v. isolation
- 7) Generativity v. stagnation
- 8) Ego integrity v. despair
1) Developed what theory?
Theory of psychosocial development (Erik Erikson)
- · At each stage, the individual must overcome a struggle to acquire the virtue associated with that stage
- · If an individual does not successfully complete a stage, the problems associated with it may reemerge in the future.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
- · American Psychologist'
- · Developed a theory of stages of moral development, building off of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
- · Consists of three levels with two stages per level
Compares groups of individuals of different ages at the same time
Follows a single group of individuals as they develop
Tendency of certain kinds of people to drop out of a study for many reasons
Researcher starts with people of different ages and then studies them again at later times
People of different generations differ in many ways
Group of people born at a particular time
8 weeks after conception
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Malformation of face, heart, impairments from mother drinking
Decreased response to a repeated stimulus (children sucking when they hear their mother’s voice)
When a change in a stimulus increases a previously habituated response (unfamiliar sound)
Organized way of interacting with objects
Applying an old schema to new objects or problems
Modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem
The establishment of harmony or balance between assimilation and accommodation
Theory of Mind
Understanding that other people have a mind, and know things that other people don’t know
Who fails to understand this?
Children fail to understand that objects conserve with properties as number, length, volume, and mass after changes in the shape or arrangement of objects (pouring the same amount of water in a short glass and a tall glass)
Zone of Proximal Development
The difference between what a child can do alone and what is possible with help à Like scaffolding (temporary support of abuilding). Parents can help
Strange Situation Experiment: Experiment where the mother leaves, classifies infants into 4 types of attachment
1) Securely attached-
2) Anxiously attached-
· infant shows distress when mother leaves, cuddles with mother when she returns and then plays again
Responses fluctuate between happy and angry
Infant may or may not interact with the mother (seldom interacts)
· Infant shows more fear than affection
2) Is it consistent over the years?
Tendency to respond nervously, vigorously, or quietly to new experiences
· Temperament is consistent over the years for most people
An adolescent’s concern with decisions about the future and quest for self-understanding.
Identity Diffusion (Adolescents)
Not actively concerned with identity at that moment
Consider issues, but don’t yet make decisions
- State of reaching firm decisions without much thought.
- Ex: Parents choosing marriages
Exploring various possible outcomes and then making a decision
Midlife Transition (Crisis)
A period of reassessing goals, setting new ones, and preparing for the rest of life
We cope with our fear of death by avoiding thoughts about death and affirming a worldwide view that provides self-esteem, hope, and value in life
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