PSY 200 chapter 2 review

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bblair
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230441
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PSY 200 chapter 2 review
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2013-08-19 00:23:45
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PSY 200 review questions for chapter 2 The tools of psychological research
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  1. The goal of psychologists is to study behavior by using the scientific method:  1.  observe  2.  detect regularities  3. generate a hypothesis  4.  observe again to test the hypothesis.

    _______  research is used primarily to _____ and describe behavior.  _____ is observed in natural settings with _______ measures.
    Descriptive,  observe, behavior, noninterfering
  2. ________ studies focus on a single case, usually a single individual.
    case
  3. A case study can yield historical information that is useful for generating _________, but the results may not always generalize to the population as a whole
    hypotheses
  4. Surveys gather limited  ________ from many people.  The data are likely to be _______ of the population as a whole but often lack historical perspective.
    responses, representative
  5. Psychological tests are primarily designed to measure _____ differences
    individual
  6. data analyses reveal _____ in psychological observations that are used to test ________
    regularities, hypotheses
  7. _____ statistics summarize and describe data.
    descriptive
  8. _______ statistics help researchers determine whether behaviors are representative of the larger population, or whether differences among observations can be attributed to chance.
    inferential
  9. A ________ helps determine whether there is a relationship between two _____ or measures of behavior.
    correlation, variables
  10. When there is a correlation between two measures of behavior, it is possible to _____ the value of one variable on the basis of knowledge about the other.
    predict
  11. A correlation between two measures of behavior allows for prediction but does not determine_________.
    causality
  12. Causality requires _____ ________.
    experimental control
  13. In ______ research, the investigator actively manipulates the ________ to observe its effect on behavior.  The particular manipulation is determined by the researcher's _________.
    • experimental
    • environment
    • hypothesis
  14. A(n) _______ variable is the aspect of the environment that is _______ in an experiment.
    independent, manipulated
  15. A (n) _______ variable is the behavior that is _______ or measured in an experiment
    • dependent
    • observed
  16. Experimental ______ is achieved by making certain that the only thing changing systematically in an experiment is the _____
    variable.
    • control
    • independent
  17. The independent variable must include at least _____ conditions.
    two
  18. Often there is a _______ which doesn't get the experimental treatment, and an _____ group that does get the treatment
    • control
    • experimental
  19. Expectations and biases, held by both subjects and researchers, can influence the results of the experiments.  Expectancy effects on the part of the subject are controlled for with the use of _________ _________ experiments, and ________  _________ experiments control for expectancies on the part of both the subject and the ___________
    • single-blind
    • double-blind
    • experimenter
  20. Necessary experimental _______ can limit the relevance of one set of research results to other subjects and situations.
    controls
  21. Research subjects must be informed of any factors that could affect their willingness to ______
    participate
  22. _______ is the process of explaining to research participants why the study is being conducted.
    debriefing
  23. _____ protects the participant's privacy
    confidentiality
  24. A primary reason for using animals in psychological research is that it allows for greater experimental _________.
    control
  25. The APA enforces strict guidelines for the ______ treatment of laboratory animals.  However, some controversy remains over their use in psychological research
    humane

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