PSY 200 chapter 2 review
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The goal of psychologists is to study behavior by using the scientific method: 1. observe 2. detect regularities 3. generate a hypothesis 4. observe again to test the hypothesis.
_______ research is used primarily to _____ and describe behavior. _____ is observed in natural settings with _______ measures.
Descriptive, observe, behavior, noninterfering
________ studies focus on a single case, usually a single individual.
A case study can yield historical information that is useful for generating _________, but the results may not always generalize to the population as a whole
Surveys gather limited ________ from many people. The data are likely to be _______ of the population as a whole but often lack historical perspective.
Psychological tests are primarily designed to measure _____ differences
data analyses reveal _____ in psychological observations that are used to test ________
_____ statistics summarize and describe data.
_______ statistics help researchers determine whether behaviors are representative of the larger population, or whether differences among observations can be attributed to chance.
A ________ helps determine whether there is a relationship between two _____ or measures of behavior.
When there is a correlation between two measures of behavior, it is possible to _____ the value of one variable on the basis of knowledge about the other.
A correlation between two measures of behavior allows for prediction but does not determine_________.
Causality requires _____ ________.
In ______ research, the investigator actively manipulates the ________ to observe its effect on behavior. The particular manipulation is determined by the researcher's _________.
A(n) _______ variable is the aspect of the environment that is _______ in an experiment.
A (n) _______ variable is the behavior that is _______ or measured in an experiment
Experimental ______ is achieved by making certain that the only thing changing systematically in an experiment is the _____
The independent variable must include at least _____ conditions.
Often there is a _______ which doesn't get the experimental treatment, and an _____ group that does get the treatment
Expectations and biases, held by both subjects and researchers, can influence the results of the experiments. Expectancy effects on the part of the subject are controlled for with the use of _________ _________ experiments, and ________ _________ experiments control for expectancies on the part of both the subject and the ___________
Necessary experimental _______ can limit the relevance of one set of research results to other subjects and situations.
Research subjects must be informed of any factors that could affect their willingness to ______
_______ is the process of explaining to research participants why the study is being conducted.
_____ protects the participant's privacy
A primary reason for using animals in psychological research is that it allows for greater experimental _________.
The APA enforces strict guidelines for the ______ treatment of laboratory animals. However, some controversy remains over their use in psychological research
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