Observational Learning

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Observational Learning
2013-08-19 02:43:27
psychology observational learning

Observational learning
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  1. What is observational learning?
    • When one learns by watching the behaviour demonstrated by another (model) whilst noting the positive and negative consequences of their actions and using this as a guide to modify future behaviour
    • Learning occurs vicariously (indirectly) and are not the ones who are initially reinforced or punished
    • (e.g. learning to make a cup of tea by watching Grandma).
  2. What is the first stage of observational learning?
    Attention: the observer must actively watch the model as they complete the task including its consequences.
  3. What is the second stage of observational learning?
    Retention (in memory): the observer must be able to make a mental representation of the observed behaviour and its consequences by storing it in their memory so that the observed learning can be used at a later time. At this stage, learning is said to be latent (existing but not yet developed)
  4. What is the third stage of observational learning?
    Reproduction: the observer must have the physical and mental ability to perform these actions (i.e. converting the mental representations into actions).
  5. What is the fourth stage of observational learning?
    • Motivation: the observer must want to perform or imitate the learnt behaviour
    • This depends  on whether or not the individual believes that the consequences are desirable
  6. What is the fifth stage of observational learning?
    • Reinforcement: if the model receives positive reinforcement, then this will increase the
    • likelihood that the observer will repeat the behaviour.