A type of learning which involves an individual watching someone else (model) do the action while noting negative or positive consequences to modify future actions.
Learning occurs vicariously (indirectly) as we are not the ones initially punished or reinforced
What is modelling?
When the observer demonstrates the learnt behaviour by imitating it
What is the 1st stage of observational learning?
Attention: the observer must actively watch the model as they complete the task
including its consequences
What is the 2nd stage of observational learning?
Retention (in memory): the observer must be able to remember or make a mental representation of the observed behaviour and its consequences by storing it in their memory so that the observed learning can be used in the future.
Learning is said to be latent (existing but not yet developed)
What is the 3rd stage of observational learning?
Reproduction: the observer must have the physical and mental ability to perform these actions (i.e. converting the mental representations into actions).
What is the 4th stage of observational learning?
Motivation: the observer must want to perform or imitate the learnt behaviour (this usually depends whether or not the individual believes that the consequences are
What is the 5th stage of observational learning?
Reinforcement: if the model receives positive reinforcement, this will increase the likelihood that the observer will repeat the behaviour
due to the prospect of receiving a reward and vice versa.