A&P

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phut52
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A&P
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2013-08-19 15:12:33
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Chapter 1
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  1. study of structure
    Anatomy
  2. study of function
    physiology
  3. simplest way to examine the structure of the human body
    inspection
  4. cutting and separation of organs to study their relationships
    cadaver dissection
  5. study of more than one species to analyze evolutionary trends
    comparative anatomy
  6. types of physical examination
    • palpation
    • auscultation
    • percussion
  7. examination of cells with microscope
    Histology
  8. feeling a structure with the hands
    palpation
  9. taking a pulse
    palpation
  10. listening to the natural sounds made by the body
    auscultation
  11. listening to the heart or lungs
    auscultation
  12. examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
    percussion
  13. cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships
    dissection
  14. dead human body
    cadaver
  15. opening the body and taking a look inside to see whats wrong and what could be done about it
    exploratory surgery
  16. methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery
    medical imaging
  17. medicine concerned with imaging
    radiation
  18. study of the structure and function of individual cells
    cytology
  19. structure that can be seen by the naked eye
    gross anatomy
  20. examination of tissues for signs of disease
    Histopathology
  21. refers to fine detail down to the molecular level, revealed by the electron microscope
    ultrastructure
  22. uses the method of experimental science
    physiology
  23. involves the study of different species
    comparative physiology
  24. basis for the development of new drugs and medical procedures
    physiology
  25. study of form, usually by some form of observation
    anatomy
  26. study of function, usually by some type of experimentation
    physiology
  27. form follows
    function
  28. anatomy is the ___of physiology but also the ____.
    • basis
    • effect
  29. DNA directs the ____ of cells.
    building
  30. father of medicine
    hippocrates
  31. established a code of ethics for physicians
    hippocrates
  32. one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology
    aristotle
  33. believed that diseases and other natural events could have either supernatural causes or natural ones
    aristotle
  34. supernatural causes
    theologi
  35. natural causes
    physiologi
  36. physician to the roman gladiators
    Claudius Galen
  37. wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era
    Claudius Galen
  38. time period with little advancement in medicine because it was taught as dogma with no new ideas
    middle ages
  39. supported free inquiry over authority
    Avicenna
  40. wrote The Canon of Medicine, used in medical school until 16th century
    The canon of medicine
  41. wrote 10 influential medical books and numerous treatises on specific diseases
    Maimonides
  42. published accurate gross anatomy atlas(1543)
    Andreas Vesalius
  43. realized blood flow out from heart and back in
    william harvey
  44. invented microscope to look at fabrics
    leeuwenhoek
  45. developed and improved compound microscope and described plant cell walls in 1665)
    Hooke and Zeiss
  46. though that all organisms were composed of cells
    schleiden and schwann
  47. time period when clinical practice was in dismal state
    Middle ages
  48. time period when patients bleed to remove toxins, people operated with dirty hands, no anesthesia for amputations
    Middles ages
  49. established scientific way of thinking, 
    replaced superstition with natural laws
    made momentous discoveries
    pioneers in the 19th and 20th centruries
  50. Momentous discoveries by the pioneers of the 19th and 20th century
    • germ theory of disease
    • heredity and structure of DNA
  51. Technique for making accurate scientific, creative, careful, logical observations then honestly analyzing the result
    scientific method
  52. developed systematic way of making scientific observations
    • francis bacon
    • rene descartes
  53. proposed inductive method
    Francis bacon
  54. process of making numerous observations until able to draw generalizations and predictions based on the observations
    inductive method
  55. most physiological knowledge was obtained by the
    hypothetico-deductive method
  56. step to H-P method
    • 1. accurate problem
    • 2. observation
    • 3. Form hypothesis " If-then statement
    • 4. experiment: Make prediction
  57. Factor in experimental design
    • sample size
    • controls
    • psychosomatic effets
    • experimenter bias
    • statistical testing
  58. the number of subjects used in a study
    experimental design
  59. comparison between treated and untreated individuals
    controls
  60. effects of the subjects state of mind on his or her physiology
    psychosomatic effects
  61. neither the subject to whom a treatment is given nor the person giving it and recording the results knows whether the subject is receiving the treatment or placebo
    double blind method
  62. information that can be independently verified by any trained person
    fact
  63. a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave
    law of nature
  64. an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses
    theory
  65. an educated speculation or possible answer to the question
    hypothesis
  66. the control group is given a
    placebo
  67. substance with no significant physiological effect on the body
    plecebo
  68. characterisitcs of living beings
    • organization
    • cellular composition
    • biochemical unity
    • metabolism
    • responsiveness
    • homeostasis
    • development
    • reproduction
  69. composed of one or more cells
    cellular composition
  70. change molecules from the environment in to molecules for their own structure , physiology, or energy
    metabolism
  71. all have universal chemical composition including DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
    biochemical unity
  72. ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli
    reponsivness
  73. maintenance of stable internal environment
    homeostasis
  74. change in form or function over lifetime
    development
  75. involves growth and differentiation
    development
  76. produce copies of self
    reproduction
  77. smallest level of body organization
    atom
  78. every material thing in our universe, including the human body is made up of
    atoms
  79. molecules combine to form
    macromolecules
  80. organelles are formed from
    macrommolecules
  81. organelles combine to
    make a cell
  82. can perform an individual function within a cell
    organelles
  83. organism is composed of
    organ systems
  84. organ systems are composed of
    organs
  85. organs are composed of
    tissues
  86. tissues are composed of
    cells
  87. cells are composed partly of
    organelles
  88. organelles are composed of
    molecules
  89. molecules are composed of
    atoms
  90. single complete individual
    organism
  91. atoms for chemicals called
    molecules
  92. group of organs with a unique collective function such as circulation, reparation, or digestion
    organ system
  93. the smalls and most numerous structural unit that possess the basic characteristics of living matter
    cells
  94. cytoplasm contains
    numerous organelles
  95. has a membrane and  nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm
    each cell
  96. a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
    organ
  97. an organization of similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function
    tissue
  98. 4 types of tissue types
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  99. made of muscles, specialized connective tissue, specialized epithelial tissues, and nervous tissue
    heart
  100. organs arranged to perform complex functions of the body
    organ system
  101. 11 major organ systems
    • integumentary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • circulatory
    • lymphatic/immune
    • resiratory
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • reproductive
  102. microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
    organelles
  103. protiens, fats, and DNA are
    macromolecules
  104. a particle composed of at least two atoms
    moleucule
  105. the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
    reductionism
  106. levels of organization
    • atom
    • molecule
    • macromolecule
    • organelle
    • cell 
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
  107. although the environment around an organism changes, the organism maintains relatively stable internal conditions
    homeostasis
  108. chemical messengers
    hormones
  109. process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that  negate or reverse it
    negative feed back
  110. 3 components to feedback control loop
    • 1. receptor mechanism
    • 2. integrating center
    • 3.effector mechanism
  111. detects the change
    receptor mechanism
  112. integrating center
    receives information from many different sensors
  113. these are usually muscles or glands which respond to the signal from the integration or control
    effector mechanism
  114. self amplifying cycle in which a physological change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producing the corrective effects of negative feedback
    positive feedback

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