T2 Cancer Genetics

Card Set Information

T2 Cancer Genetics
2013-08-20 13:51:35
Human Genetics

Test 2
Show Answers:

  1. Which of the top causes of death has a genetic component?
    All can have a genetic component
  2. What is a neoplasm/neoplasia?
    a tumor
  3. Where is a tumor most likely to occur?
    in tissues with higher turn over
  4. What is the hallmark of tumors?
    • increased rate of cell division or mitosis 
    • uncontrolled growth
  5. In tissues what is disregarded?
    the amount of times a cell can divide
  6. What are the 2 types of neoplasms?
    • Benign: doesn't metastasize 
    • Malignant: does metastasize
  7. Bengin tumors
    • regular pattern, even borders, encapsulated 
    • resembles tissue of origin (well differentiated)
    • goes to distant sites
  8. Malignant tumors
    • irregular patterns no capsule 
    • non-differeniated
  9. How do we grade tumors?
    • TNM in stages of 0-4 
    • tumor, nodes, malignancy
  10. What is clonal condition
    it only takes one damaged cell
  11. What is hyperplasia?
    more cells than normal
  12. What is dysplsia
  13. Where do benign/malignant tumor grow?
    • grow locally and in place
    • enter blood vessels and go to places (invades)
  14. how do tumors get to a new location?
    • invade surr tissues/blod vessels 
    • cells transported by circ system 
    • cells reinvade and grow at new location
  15. How does cancer occur?
    oncogene activation and tumor supressor gene inactivation
  16. How many mutations lead to cancer?
    • mant somatic mutations 
    • only takes 3 mutations 
    • mutations in at least 2 genes
  17. What is oncogenesis?
    two events
  18. What is a oncogene?
    mutant of normal gene (pro to-oncogene( that codes for normal growth
  19. Tumor Supressor Gene inactivation
    tumor suppressor gene--> regulates cell cycle= bad
  20. What are unique about oncogenes
    • are in embryo (inactive) everyone has them
    • they are normal genes though
    • =uncontrolled cell division 
  21. What has to happen for cancer to happen?
    • 1)mutation of the proto-oncogene = activates oncogenes =increase rate of cell division 
    • 2) have to inactivate tumor suppressor gene
  22. What is a proto-oncogene?
    • controls cell division 
    • when activated=uncontrolled cell division
  23. Why is proto-onco gene not a good name?
    • there is not just one but many and not just on one chromo but on many
    • turn off and stay turned off but DNA replication it can stay on 
  24. What is a tumor suppressor gene
    • regulates cell cycle 
    • "brake pedal"
  25. What do TSG do?
    • keep us healthy
    • monitor cells
  26. What are the 2 types of TSG?
    • Gate keeper genes: proteins that control cell cycle 
    • Caretaker genes: proteins that protect DNA
  27. What 4 things do proto-oncogenes do?
  28. What things do TSG do in Caretaker genes?
  29. Proto-onco =1 allele 
    TSG= needs both alleles need to be mutated **
  30. What is an example of a TSG
    • caretaker gene p53 (nuclear phosphoprotein) 
    • stops cell cycle in G1 when DNA damaged
  31. What happens if the DNA is not repaired?
    dies- apoptosis
  32. How many cells are believed to be due to p53 inactivation?
  33. How is p53 inactivated?
    missense mutation = cell suicide
  34. What genes causes cell suicide?
    • FAS gene 
    • apoptotic 
  35. What percent are familial cancers?
    less than 5% can be passed on
  36. What factors do familial cancers have?
    • early onset 
    • bilateral invol/mulifocal tumors (both lungs/breast) 
    • two rare tumors 
    • 2+ relatives with same tumor 
  37. What is the most common type of cancer in women?
    • breast cancer 
    • founder effect W/E countries 
  38. What is the ratio of breast cancer?
    1 in 20 familial 
  39. What is BRCA?
    • Breast cancer mutations
    • tumor suppressor gene mutations 
  40. What is the frequency of breast cancer?
    1:250 women
  41. Where is BRCA 1 located?
    • 17q21
    • lifetime cancer risk
    • BC-60-80%
    • ovarian-20-40%
  42. Where is the BRCA 2 located?
    • breast cancer 60-85%
    • ovarian cancer 10-20%