Psych Chapter 4

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Psych Chapter 4
2013-08-20 00:29:01

Psych chapter 4
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  1. Sound waves
    Vibrations of the air, water, or other medium
  2. Vibrations per second is
    Hertz (Hz)
  3. Pitch
    The perception closely related to frequency

    Example: High frequency as high pitched, low frequency as low pitched
  4. Loudness
    Perception that depends on the amplitude of sound waves

    Psychological experience
  5. Cochlea
    Fluid-filled, snail-shaped organ with canals.

    Contains receptors for hearing
  6. Conduction Deafness
    Results when the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
  7. Nerve Deafness
    Results from damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve.

    Disease, heredity, and loud noises are often causes of nerve deafness
  8. Frequency Principle
    A sound-wave through the fluid of the cochlea vibrates all the hair cells, which produce action potentials in synchrony with the sound waves

    Ex: A sound with a frequency of 50 Hz makes the nerves send the brain 50 impulses per second
  9. Volley Principle
    Beyond about 100 Hz, hair cells cannot keep pace. Still, each sound wave excites at least a few hair cells and volleys of them respond to each vibration with an action potential

    A tone of 1000 Hz may produce 1000 impulses per second even though no neuron fires that rapidly
  10. Place Principle
    The highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells near the stirrup end, and lower frequency sounds vibrate hair cells farther along the membrane
  11. Vestibular Sense
    Detects the tilt and acceleration of the head and the orientation of the head with respect to gravity.

    Ex: Posture, balance, motion sickness
  12. Cutaneous Senses
    Pressure on the skin, warmth, cold, pain, itch, movement across the skin, stretch of the skin. Also known as the somatosensory system
  13. Gate theory of pain
    The idea that pain messages must pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord that can block the messages

    Ex: If you injure yourself, the surrounding skin sends inhibitory messages to the spinal cord closing the pain gates
  14. Endorphins
    Neurotransmitters that weaken pain sensations
  15. Retinex (retina+cortex) Theory
    The cerebral cortex synthesizes color perception by comparing light from different parts of the retina
  16. Opponent Process Theory
    Color is perceived in red v green, blue v yellow, white v black. Staring at one color fatigues those cells, so we see a negative after-image
  17. Trichromatic Theory
    Three types of cones: blue, green, and red

    The brain computes ratios of activation
  18. Rods and Cones
    Cones are for color, rods are for dim light

    More rods than cones
  19. Capsaicin
    Causes pain, then desensitizes the nociceptors

    Ex: What makes peppers spicy
  20. Phantom Limb
    Continuing sensations including pain in the limb long after it has been amputated
  21. Taste
    Detects chemicals on the tongue
  22. Taste buds
    Located in the folds of the surface in the tongue, taste receptors
  23. Smell
    Sense of smell is known as olfaction
  24. Synesthesia
    A condition in which a stimulus of one type such as sound also elicits another experience, such as color.
  25. Absolute Sensory Threshold
    Intensity at which a given individual detects a stimulus 50% of the time
  26. Pain
    Nociceptors send pain signals to the spinal cord
  27. Weber's Law
    The just noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus

    Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime
  28. Signal Detection Theory
    Tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses, and false alarms

    Ex: Peoples' tendency to change as their motivation changes

    For example, when you walk to your car that is parked in an empty parking lot  late at night all by yourself, you might be much more aware of noises because  the situation is somewhat threatening (you are primed and listening carefully to  hear anything and everything
  29. Subliminal Perception
    Stimuli sometimes influence our behavior, even when they are presented so faintly or briefly that we do not perceive them consciously

    Ex: When you see a happy face, you slightly mimic what you saw
  30. Brightness Contrast
    The increase or decrease in an object's apparent brightness in contrast to objects around it
  31. Feature Detectors
    Specialized neurons in the visual cortex that respond to the presence of simple features such as lines and angles
  32. Waterfall Illusion
    If you stare at a waterfall for a minute or more and turn your eyes to the nearby cliffs, the cliffs appear to flow upward
  33. Gestalt Psychology
    A field that emphasizes perception and overall patterns
  34. Bottom Up Process
    Tiny elements combine to produce larger items

    • 12
    • A13C
    • 14

    The ABC is dependent on how choose to read it
  35. Top-Down Process
    In which you apply your experience and expectations to interpret each item in context

    When you see a word because you are expecting it (cat in the hat)
  36. Figure and Ground
    You distinguish the object from the background

    You can't see the object unless you look really hard (Black spots)
  37. Reversible Figures
    Can be perceived in more than one way
  38. Proximity
    The tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to a group
  39. Similarity
    The tendency to perceive similar as being a group
  40. Continuation
    Filling in of the gaps when lines are interrupted
  41. Closure
    We imagine the rest of the figure to see something that is simple, symmetrical, or consistent with our past experience
  42. Visual Constancy
    Tendency to perceive objects as keeping their shape, size, and color, despite distortions in the actual pattern reaching the retina.
  43. Induced Movement
    Incorrectly perceived object as moving

    When an object is stationary, and the background

  44. Stroboscopic Movement
    An illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images

    Still images in movies
  45. Depth Perception

    Retinal Disparity

    Convergence of the Eyes
    Perception of distance enables us to experience the world in 3D

    Difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas

    Degree in which they turn in to focus on a close object. The more the muscles pull, the closer the object must be.
  46. Depth Perception:

    1) Binocular Cues

    2) Monocular Cues
    Retinal disparity and convergence are called binocular cues because they depend on both eyes

    Enable you to judge depth and distance with just one eye
  47. Motion Parallax
    The difference in speed of movement of images across the retina as you travel
  48. Optical Illusion
    A misinterpretation of visual stimulus
  49. Sensation
    The conversion of energy into a pattern of responses by the nervous system
  50. Moon Illusion
    The moon at the horizon appears about 30% larger than it appears when it is higher in the sky