Electrons have a ______ charge, equal and opposite to _____.
____ determine the chemical properties of the atom
Elements consist of ______
only one type of atom
ex. pure bar of iron
Compounds consist of matter that is made up of __________
atoms that are chemically bonded
ex. water = hydrogen + oxygen
Mixtures are matter that is made up of ______
one or more types of molecules that are not chemically combined
ex. milk = water + butterfat
Solutions are ______
homogenous mixtures where the substances are distributed evenly
ex. sea water
Physical properties of matter include:
Color, density, hardness, and conductivity
the amount of mass that is contained in a unit volume by a given substance
the resistance to penetration offered by a given substance
a substance's ability to transmit heat (thermal) or current (electrical)
a substance changes state
the chemical properties of the matter remain unchanged
solid to liquid to gas
have a relatively high number of free electrons (valence electrons) that can wander from atom to atom.
Conduction occurs when _______
battery terminals are connected across a material object, causing the free electrons to flow as a current through the object.
A product is _______
chemically combined reactants that along with any heat energy, can either be liberated (exothermic) or absorbed (endothermic).
In general, elements from the same groups in the periodic table _____ while elements from different groups _____.
will not react / will react
Acid/water solution properties include:
1. conducting electrically
2. reacting strongly with metals
3. changing blue litmus to pink
4. reacting with base solutions to form a neutralizing salt.
Base/water solution properties include:
1. conducting electrically
2. changing red litmus blue
3. reacting with acid solutions to form a neutralizing salt
4. feeling slippery with strong solutions caustic to the skin.
location of an object
refers to how far an object has moved.
If an object moves in a straight line with start position of -2 and ending position of 7, we can say it's displacement is 9.
the time-rate of displacement.
To find the average speed over time we divide the displacement by the time.
A speed with a specified direction.
Ex. 2m/s to the right
the rate of velocity change.
To find the average acceleration over time we divide the change in velocity by the time.
the ability to do work
the force applied to an object which is moved some distances.
Energy exists in three states:
an object possessing energy because of its motion
The energy that an object has as the result of its position or condition is called
the energy necessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic energy
defined as either a push or pull on an object
Energy is available in many forms including:
a measure of aggregate atomic or molecular activity within an object.
The transfer of heat is accomplished in three different ways:
If two objects differing in temperature are placed in contact, heat will flow from the hotter object to the cooler object.
Heat transfer can occur in a vacuum where there is no possibility of conduction. Heat is radiated from the object into space.
Heating and circulation of a substance that changes its density when heated.
can be mixtures of multiple wavelengths or a single wavelength. Wavelength here means color.
White light source
a source that produces a mixture of colors
ex. incandescent light bulb
Monochromatic light source
produces single color sources
The three principal modes of light/matter interaction include:
Light in the visible spectrum interacts with the rods and cones of the human eye, producing electrical signals which the brain interprets as color.
the process by which chlorophyll-containing organisms capture energy in the form of light and convert it to chemical energy
electrons are emitted by the illuminated material.
Any color that is blue-wards of the cutoff color will produce emission while any color that is red-ward will not.
the wave disturbance is perpendicular or transverse to the direction of propagation.
ex. a rock is tossed into a still pond
wave disturbances are parallel to the direction of propagation
Electromagnetic waves are unique because?
They require no medium for transmission and can readily propagate through a vacuum.
occurs when all or part of a wave incident on a material surface bounces off the surface and is redirected.
ex. the image seen in plane mirrors
refraction occurs when all or part of a wave penetrates the surface.
The angle made by the refracted ray will depend on material type and density
ex. swimming pool bottom seeming closer than it actually is
the fundamental unit of all living organisms
genetic material having coded instructions for the behavior and reproduction of the cell
translation of DNA into protein
Cells are composed primarily of the elements:
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen
important agents where the products of the enzymatic breakdown, or metabolism, convert into energy in the form of the molecule adenosine triphosphate in animal cells
contain chlorophyll used in converting light into ATP called photosynthesis
the process by which chlorophyll-containing organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.
CO2 + 2H2O + light = (CH2) + H2O + H2O
CH2 = Hydrocarbon
Nervous system has two divisions
somatic: allowing voluntary control over skeletal muscle
Automatic: involuntary, controlling cardiac and glandular functions
caused by nerve impulses arising in the brain, carried by cranial or spinal chord nerves connecting to skeletal muscles.
pain, temperature, touch, and pressure receptors
internal environment receptors
Movement, position, and tension receptors
blood is pumped by the heart, passing through the right chambers of the heart and through the lungs where it acquires oxygen.
From there it is pumped back into the left chambers of the heart.
Next it is pumped into the main artery, the aorta, which branches into increasingly smaller arteries.
Then the blood passes through tiny, thin-walled structures called capillaries. In the capillaries, the blood gives up oxygen and nutrients to tissues, absorbing carbon dioxide and metabolic waste.
Finally, the blood passes through small veins until it reaches the largest veins which return it to the right side of the heart.
generated to destroy the invader molecules in the body.
carried on by the expansion and contraction of the lungs. Oxygen enters tiny capillaries where it combines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells and is carried to the tissues.
At the same time carbon dioxide passes through capillaries into the air contained within the lungs. Inhaling draws air into the lungs that is higher in oxygen and lower in CO2.
Plants Vs Animal cells
both eukaryotic (nucleated) and multicellular
- plants make their own food, photosynthesis
- animals derive nutrition from other organic matter by ingesting rather than absorbing
the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment
Thy physical environment includes:
light, heat, solar radiation, moisture, wind, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients in sod, water, and atmosphere.
The biological environment includes:
organisms of the same kind as well as other plants and animals
producers (green plants)
consumers (herbivores and carnivores)
decomposers (fungi and bacteria)
nonliving, or abiotic components, consisting of dead organic matter and nutrients in the soil and water
the functional role of a species in a community
when a shared resource is scarce organisms compete, and those that are more successful survive.
the consumption of one living organism, plant, or animal, by another.
the joint venture of two unrelated species that have a close ecological relationship, that is, the evolution of one species depends in part on the evolution of the other. Coevolution is also involved in predator-prey relations.
most agree that an organisms life span is determined and limited by the laws of natural selection.
aging is caused by the accumulation of small flaws in genetic information passed on as the body cells reproduce
Cell rate theory
cells taken from humans and other mammals and grown in the laboratory have been found to die before reaching 50 transfers of daughter cells to a new culture medium. The fact suggests that the rate at which individual cells age defines not only the average life span of a species but also that of the species sexes.
the body of an organism slowly loses its ability to defend itself from harmful organisms that invade from without and cellular anomalies that subvert from within.
asexual animal propagation
most single celled organisms reproduce by a process known as fission, in which the parent organism splits into two or more daughter organisms, thereby losing its original identity.
Only one parent gives rise to the offspring
sexual animal propagation
reproduction is governed by sperm uniting with ova.
- cross fertilization (ova and sperm deposited in water at some distance from each other)
Asexual plant propagation
the method by which plants reproduce without the union of cells or nuclei of cells, producing individuals that are genetically identical to the parent
Sexual plant propagation
involves seeds, produced by two individuals, male and female
Seed germination begins when a sufficient amount of water is absorbed by the seed, precipitating biochemical changes whereupon cell division is initiated.
the complex of processes by which living organisms originated on earth and have been diversified and modified through sustained changes in form and function
James Watson and Francis Crick
demonstrated that genetic material is composed of two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA.
-composed of essentially hydrogen
- has a mass 750 times the amount of all the planets combined.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
- composed mostly of rocky-metallic material
Saturn Uranus, and Neptune
- composed mostly of hydrogen, helium, and ices of ammonia and methane.
Jupiter is composed largely of hydrogen and
Astronomical Units to measure distance from the sun
- orbit into the same rotational sense as the rest of the planets.
- Composed of carbonaceous or rocky-metallic
- have significant amounts of ices and water
- orbit more elliptical than planets
large masses of hydrogen, which have been pulled together by gravity.
the most common form of solid material found in the Earth's crust. To be considered a mineral the element must be found in nature and never have been a part of any living organism.
formed either under or above ground.
Underground they are formed when the melted rock deep within the earth, called magma, becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma slowly cool underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks.
Also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth's surface. When magma rises above the surface it is called lava. When lava cools igneous rock is formed.
have morphed into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. They were heated under tons of pressure and this caused them to change.
formed over thousands or millions of years, when little pieces of earth are broken down and worn away by wind and water.
Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each the bottom layers turn into rock
The Earth consists of five parts
atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and core
the gaseous envelope that surrounds that solid body of the planet.
- has a thickness of more than 1100km about half its mass is concentrated in the lower 5.6km.
-consists of cold, rigid, rocky crust of the Earth
-extends to depths of 100km
- the layer of water that, in the form of the oceans, covers approximately two-thirds of the surface of the Earth.
Mantle and Core
-the heavy interior of the Earth making up most of its mass
- the surface of the earth is broken up into large lithospheric plates.
- the edges of these plates are sites of intense geologic activity such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain
composed of fiery igneous rock, ash, and many different kinds of layers of dirt and mud that have hardened from previous eruptions
Evidence for plate tectonics
1. the shapes of continents look like they are separated pieces of a jog-saw puzzle.
2. Many fossil comparisons along with edges of continents that look like they fit together suggest species similarities that would only make sense if the two continents were joined at some point in the past.
3. There is a large amount of seismic, volcanic, and geothermal activity along plate boundaries compared to sites far from boundaries.
4. There are ridges where plates are separating due to lava welling up from between the plates as they pull apart.
a series of movements of water above, on , and below the surface of the earth.
storage, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff
a large, flowing body of water usually empties into a sea or ocean
where a river meets the sea or ocean
a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent
a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides
the act of sensing some measurable phenomenon
relating parts to a coherent whole
Testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment.
deducing a conclusion from a measurement or observation that is not explicit to either.
stating the outcome of an experiment in advance of doing it
data or observations that are relevant factors in testing hypotheses.
an explanation of phenomena that may or may not be supported by evidence
an educated guess as to the relationship between two variables
Systematically organized knowledge that explains scientific phenomena
a statement of observable behavior based on consistent experience