CSET Science

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Angele1990
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230507
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CSET Science
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2013-10-27 19:32:25
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CSET Review
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Science Review
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  1. Matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  2. Matter can exist in which four distinct states?
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
    • Plasma
  3. Electrons have a ______ charge, equal and opposite to _____.
    negative/ protons
  4. ____ determine the chemical properties of the atom
    electrons
  5. Elements consist of ______
    • only one type of atom
    • ex. pure bar of iron
  6. Compounds consist of matter that is made up of __________
    • atoms that are chemically bonded
    • ex. water = hydrogen + oxygen
  7. Mixtures are matter that is made up of ______
    • one or more types of molecules that are not chemically combined
    • ex. milk = water + butterfat
  8. Solutions are ______
    • homogenous mixtures where the substances are distributed evenly
    • ex. sea water
  9. Physical properties of matter include:
    Color, density, hardness, and conductivity
  10. Density
    the amount of mass that is contained in a unit volume by a given substance
  11. Hardness
    the resistance to penetration offered by a given substance
  12. Conductivity
    a substance's ability to transmit heat (thermal) or current (electrical)
  13. Phase change
    • a substance changes state
    • the chemical properties of the matter remain unchanged
    • solid to liquid to gas
  14. Conductors
    have a relatively high number of free electrons (valence electrons) that can wander from atom to atom.
  15. Conduction occurs when _______
    battery terminals are connected across a material object, causing the free electrons to flow as a current through the object.
  16. A product is _______
    chemically combined reactants that along with any heat energy, can either be liberated (exothermic) or absorbed (endothermic).
  17. In general, elements from the same groups in the periodic table _____ while elements from different groups _____.
    will not react / will react
  18. Acid/water solution properties include:
    • 1. conducting electrically
    • 2. reacting strongly with metals
    • 3. changing blue litmus to pink
    • 4. reacting with base solutions to form a neutralizing salt.
  19. Base/water solution properties include:
    • 1. conducting electrically
    • 2. changing red litmus blue
    • 3. reacting with acid solutions to form a neutralizing salt
    • 4. feeling slippery with strong solutions caustic to the skin.
  20. Position
    location of an object
  21. Displacement
    • refers to how far an object has moved.
    • If an object moves in a straight line with start position of -2 and ending position of 7, we can say it's displacement is 9.
  22. Speed
    • the time-rate of displacement.
    • To find the average speed over time we divide the displacement by the time.
  23. Velocity
    • A speed with a specified direction.
    • Ex. 2m/s to the right
  24. Acceleration
    • the rate of velocity change.
    • To find the average acceleration over time we divide the change in velocity by the time.
  25. Energy
    the ability to do work
  26. work
    the force applied to an object which is moved some distances.
  27. Energy exists in three states:
    • potential
    • kinetic
    • activation
  28. Kinetic energy
    an object possessing energy because of its motion
  29. The energy that an object has as the result of its position or condition is called
    potential energy
  30. Activation energy
    the energy necessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic energy
  31. Force
    defined as either a push or pull on an object
  32. Energy is available in many forms including:
    • heat
    • light
    • solar
    • radiation
    • chemical
    • electrical
    • magnetic
    • sound
  33. Temperature
    a measure of aggregate atomic or molecular activity within an object.
  34. The transfer of heat is accomplished in three different ways:
    • conduction
    • convection
    • radiation
  35. Conduction
    If two objects differing in temperature are placed in contact, heat will flow from the hotter object to the cooler object.
  36. Radiation
    Heat transfer can occur in a vacuum where there is no possibility of conduction. Heat is radiated from the object into space.
  37. Convection
    Heating and circulation of a substance that changes its density when heated.
  38. Light sources
    can be mixtures of multiple wavelengths or a single wavelength. Wavelength here means color.
  39. White light source
    • a source that produces a mixture of colors
    • ex. incandescent light bulb
  40. Monochromatic light source
    • produces single color sources
    • ex. laser
  41. The three principal modes of light/matter interaction include:
    • vision
    • photosynthesis
    • photoemission
  42. Vision
    Light in the visible spectrum interacts with the rods and cones of the human eye, producing electrical signals which the brain interprets as color.
  43. Photosynthesis
    the process by which chlorophyll-containing organisms capture energy in the form of light and convert it to chemical energy
  44. Photoemission
    • electrons are emitted by the illuminated material.
    • Any color that is blue-wards of the cutoff color will produce emission while any color that is red-ward will not.
  45. Transverse waves
    • the wave disturbance is perpendicular or transverse to the direction of propagation.
    • ex. a rock is tossed into a still pond
  46. Longitudinal waves
    • wave disturbances are parallel to the direction of propagation
    • ex.
  47. Electromagnetic waves are unique because?
    They require no medium for transmission and can readily propagate through a vacuum.
  48. Wave reflection
    • occurs when all or part of a wave incident on a material surface bounces off the surface and is redirected.
    • ex. the image seen in plane mirrors
  49. Refracted waves
    • refraction occurs when all or part of a wave penetrates the surface.
    • The angle made by the refracted ray will depend on material type and density
    • ex. swimming pool bottom seeming closer than it actually is
  50. Cell
    the  fundamental unit of all living organisms
  51. DNA
    genetic material having coded instructions for the behavior and reproduction of the cell
  52. Chemical Apparatus
    translation of DNA into protein
  53. Cells are composed primarily of the elements:
    oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen
  54. Mitochondria
    important agents where the products of the enzymatic breakdown, or metabolism, convert into energy in the form of the molecule adenosine triphosphate in animal cells
  55. Chloroplasts
    contain chlorophyll used in converting light into ATP called photosynthesis
  56. Photosynthesis
    the process by which chlorophyll-containing organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.
  57. Photosynthesis equation
    CO2 + 2H2O + light = (CH2) + H2O + H2O

    CH2 = Hydrocarbon
  58. Nervous system has two divisions
    somatic: allowing voluntary control over skeletal muscle

    Automatic: involuntary, controlling cardiac and glandular functions
  59. Voluntary movement
    caused by nerve impulses arising in the brain, carried by cranial or spinal chord nerves connecting to skeletal muscles.
  60. Involuntary movement
    reflexes
  61. Exteroceptors
    pain, temperature, touch, and pressure receptors
  62. Interoceptors
    internal environment receptors
  63. Proprioceptors
    Movement, position, and tension receptors
  64. Circulatory System
    • blood is pumped by the heart, passing through the right chambers of the heart and through the lungs where it acquires oxygen.
    • From there it is pumped back into the left chambers of the heart.
    • Next it is pumped into the main artery, the aorta, which branches into increasingly smaller arteries.
    • Then the blood passes through tiny, thin-walled structures called capillaries. In the capillaries, the blood gives up oxygen and nutrients to tissues, absorbing carbon dioxide and metabolic waste.
    • Finally, the blood passes through small veins until it reaches the largest veins which return it to the right side of the heart.
  65. Lympthocytes
    generated to destroy the invader molecules in the body.
  66. Respiration
    carried on by the expansion and contraction of the lungs. Oxygen enters tiny capillaries where it combines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells and is carried to the tissues.

    At the same time carbon dioxide passes through capillaries into the air contained within the lungs. Inhaling draws air into the lungs that is higher in oxygen and lower in CO2.
  67. Plants Vs Animal cells
    both eukaryotic (nucleated) and multicellular

    • - plants make their own food, photosynthesis
    • - animals derive nutrition from other organic matter by ingesting rather than absorbing
  68. Ecology
    the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment
  69. Thy physical environment includes:
    light, heat, solar radiation, moisture, wind, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients in sod, water, and atmosphere.
  70. The biological environment includes:
    organisms of the same kind as well as other plants and animals
  71. Ecosystem
    • producers (green plants)
    • consumers (herbivores and carnivores)
    • decomposers (fungi and bacteria)
    • nonliving, or abiotic components, consisting of dead organic matter and nutrients in the soil and water
  72. Niche
    the functional role of a species in a community
  73. competition
    when a shared resource is scarce organisms compete, and those that are more successful survive.
  74. Predation
    the consumption of one living organism, plant, or animal, by another.
  75. Coevolution
    the joint venture of two unrelated species that have a close ecological relationship, that is, the evolution of one species depends in part on the evolution of the other. Coevolution is also involved in predator-prey relations.
  76. Life span
    most agree that an organisms life span is determined and limited by the laws of natural selection.
  77. Error theory
    aging is caused by the accumulation of small flaws in genetic information passed on as the body cells reproduce
  78. Cell rate theory
    cells taken from humans and other mammals and grown in the laboratory have been found to die before reaching 50 transfers of daughter cells to a new culture medium. The fact suggests that the rate at which individual cells age defines not only the average life span of a species but also that of the species sexes.
  79. Immune theory
    the body of an organism slowly loses its ability to defend itself from harmful organisms that invade from without and cellular anomalies that subvert from within.
  80. asexual animal propagation
    • most single celled organisms reproduce by a process known as fission, in which the parent organism splits into two or more daughter organisms, thereby losing its original identity.
    • Only one parent gives rise to the offspring
  81. sexual animal propagation
    • reproduction is governed by sperm uniting with ova.
    • -insemination
    • - cross fertilization (ova and sperm deposited in water at some distance from each other)
  82. Asexual plant propagation
    the method by which plants reproduce without the union of cells or nuclei of cells, producing individuals that are genetically identical to the parent
  83. Sexual plant propagation
    • involves seeds, produced by two individuals, male and female
    • Seed germination begins when a sufficient amount of water is absorbed by the seed, precipitating biochemical changes whereupon cell division is initiated.
  84. Evolution
    the complex of processes by which living organisms originated on earth and have been diversified and modified through sustained changes in form and function
  85. James Watson and Francis Crick
    demonstrated that genetic material is composed of two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA.
  86. The Sun
    • -composed of essentially hydrogen
    • - has a mass 750 times the amount of all the planets combined.
  87. Inner planets
    • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
    • - composed mostly of rocky-metallic material
  88. Outer planets
    • Saturn Uranus, and Neptune
    • - composed mostly of hydrogen, helium, and ices of ammonia and methane.
  89. Gas giant
    Jupiter is composed largely of hydrogen and
  90. AU
    Astronomical Units to measure distance from the sun
  91. Asteroids
    • - orbit into the same rotational sense as the rest of the planets. 
    • - Composed of carbonaceous or rocky-metallic
  92. Comets
    • - have significant amounts of ices and water
    • - orbit more elliptical than planets
  93. Stars
    large masses of hydrogen, which have been pulled together by gravity.
  94. Minerals
    the most common form of solid material found in the Earth's crust. To be considered a mineral the element must be found in nature and never have been a part of any living organism.
  95. igneous rocks
    formed either under or above ground.

    Underground they are formed when the melted rock deep within the earth, called magma, becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma slowly cool underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks.

    Also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth's surface. When magma rises above the surface it is called lava. When lava cools igneous rock is formed.
  96. Metamorphic rocks
    have morphed into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. They were heated under tons of pressure and this caused them to change.
  97. Sedimentary Rocks
    formed over thousands or millions of years, when little pieces of earth are broken down and worn away by wind and water. 

    Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each the bottom layers turn into rock
  98. The Earth consists of five parts
    atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and core
  99. Atmosphere
    • the gaseous envelope that surrounds that solid body of the planet. 
    • - has a thickness of more than 1100km about half its mass is concentrated in the lower 5.6km.
  100. Lithosphere
    • -consists of cold, rigid, rocky crust of the Earth
    • -extends to depths of 100km
  101. Hydrosphere
    - the layer of water that, in the form of the oceans, covers approximately two-thirds of the surface of the Earth.
  102. Mantle and Core
    -the heavy interior of the Earth making up most of its mass
  103. Plate tectonics
    • - the surface of the earth is broken up into large lithospheric plates.
    • - the edges of these plates are sites of intense geologic activity such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain
  104. Volcanoes
    composed of fiery igneous rock, ash, and many different kinds of layers of dirt and mud that have hardened from previous eruptions
  105. Evidence for plate tectonics
    1. the shapes of continents look like they are separated pieces of a jog-saw puzzle. 

    2. Many fossil comparisons along with edges of continents that look like they fit together suggest species similarities that would only make sense if the two continents were joined at some point in the past. 

    3. There is a large amount of seismic, volcanic, and geothermal activity along plate boundaries compared to sites far from boundaries.

    4. There are ridges where plates are separating due to lava welling up from between the plates as they pull apart.
  106. Hydrologic Cycle
    a series of movements of water above, on , and below the surface of the earth. 

    • Four stages:
    • storage, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff
  107. River
    a large, flowing body of water usually empties into a sea or ocean
  108. Estuary
    where a river meets the sea or ocean
  109. Ocean
    a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent
  110. Lake
    a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides
  111. Observation
    the act of sensing some measurable phenomenon
  112. Organization
    relating parts to a coherent whole
  113. Experimental
    Testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment.
  114. Inference
    deducing a conclusion from a measurement or observation that is not explicit to either.
  115. Prediction
    stating the outcome of an experiment in advance of doing it
  116. Evidence
    data or observations that are relevant factors in testing hypotheses.
  117. Opinion
    an explanation of phenomena that may or may not be supported by evidence
  118. Hypothesis
    an educated guess as to the relationship between two variables
  119. Theory
    Systematically organized knowledge that explains scientific phenomena
  120. law
    a statement of observable behavior based on consistent experience

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