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  1. Cardiovascular fitness
    The ability of the entire body to work together efficiently, to be able to do the most amount of work with the least amount of effort.
  2. Cardiovascular fitness is composed of 4 components:
    • strength and power
    • endurance
    • movement speed and flexibility
    • agility
  3. Warm-up
    • essential to a work out
    • increases body temp and blood flow, as well as guard against strains and tears to muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
    • consists of stretching, calisthenics, and slow jogging
  4. Lack of activity can cause many problems, including:
    • flabby muscles
    • weak heart
    • poor circulation
    • shortness of breath
    • obesity
    • degenerative weakening of the skeletal system
  5. Cool-off period
    without cooling off blood will pool and slow the removal of waste products.
  6. Aerobic exercise
    • involves both muscle contraction and movement of the body.
    • Requires large amounts of oxygen and when done regularly will condition the cardio system.
  7. True aerobic conditioning must
    • require a great deal of oxygen
    • be continuous and rhythmic
    • exercise major muscle groups
    • burn fat as an energy resource
    • last for at least 20 minutes at an individuals target heart rate.
  8. Target heart rate
    Subtract 80% of your age from 220
  9. Types of joints
    • Ball and socket (shoulder and hip)
    • hinge (knee)
    • pivot (head of the spine)
    • gliding (carpal and tarsal bones)
    • angular (wrist and ankle joints)
    • partially moveable (vertebrae)
    • immovable (bones of the adult cranium)
  10. Volleyball
    • 6 players
    • two out of three games
    • Winner scores 25 points with a margin of 2
  11. Basketball
    • 5 players
    • Most points at the end of the game wins
  12. Softball
    • 9-10 players
    • Most runs at the end of 7 innings wins
  13. Field Hockey
    • 11 players
    • Most goals wins
  14. Soccer
    • 11 players
    • Most goals wins
  15. Flag football
    • 9 or 11 players
    • 6 points for a touchdown
    • 1 or 2 for a point after
    • 2 for a safety
  16. Tennis
    • either doubles or singles
    • 4 point- fifteen, thirty, forty, and game.
    • Tie at forty-deuce.
    • Winner must win by a margin of two.
    • Love means zero points
  17. Badminton
    • Either doubles or singles
    • winner in doubles 15 points, singles 21 points by a margin of 2
  18. Table tennis
    • either doubles or singles
    • 21 points by a margin of two
  19. Shuffleboard
    • either singles or doubles
    • 50, 75, or 100 points (determined at start of game)
  20. Swimming
    very good for cardiovascular conditioning and can be done almost anywhere there is water
  21. Track and Field
    scoring varies with event
  22. Bowling
    scoring is unique and good math skills are encouraged
  23. Weight training
    • muscles are toned and strengthened
    • abdominal strength is important to lower back strength
  24. Gymnastics
    • Includes tumbling.
    • Develops coordination and grace.
    • requires strength
  25. Golf
    requires coordination, concentration, and depth perception.
  26. Rhythmics
    • includes ball gymnastics and other activities that may require music.
    • enables students to develop music appreciation as well as spatial awareness
  27. Dance
    • develops spatial awareness and the ability to follow instructions
    • Basic steps are walk and/or skip - 1st and 2nd grade
    • Skip, slide, and/or run - 2nd and 3rd grade
    • step-hop - 3rd - 6th grade
  28. blind or partially sighted students
    may participate in weight lifting, dance, and some gymnastic and tumbling activities.
  29. handicapped children definition
    includes children who have been evaluated as being mentally impaired, deaf, speech impaired, visually handicapped, emotionally disturbed, orthopedically impaired, multi-handicapped, having learning disabilities, or having other health impairments
  30. Class size for handicapped students
    • optimum is less than 10
    • 15 absolute maximum
  31. Complex carbohydrates
    • should comprise at least half of a diet.
    • the primary and most efficient source of energy.
    • ex. veggies, fruits, high-fiber breads, and cereals.
  32. Fiber
    promotes digestion, reduces constipation, and reduces the risk of colon cancer
  33. Proteins
    • should comprise about one-fifth of a diet.
    • builds and repairs the body
    • ex. beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, red meat
  34. Unsaturated fat
    • found in veggies
    • preferable to saturated fat
    • appear to offset the rise in blood pressure that accompanies too much saturated fat
    • may lower cholesterol and help with weight loss
  35. Saturated fat
    • comes from animals and veggies
    • cause the body to produce too much low-density lipoprotein in the system.
  36. LDL cholesterol
    • low-density lipoproteins
    • encourages the build up of plaque in the arteries
    • can be controlled through proper diet
  37. HDL
    • high-density lipoproteins
    • lessen the build up of plaque in arteries
  38. Triglycerides
    Important to monitor because high triglycerides seem to be inversely proportional to HDLs.
  39. Vitamin A
    • Needed for normal vision
    • Prevention of night blindness
    • healthy skin
    • resistance to disease
    • tissue growth and repair
    • FOUND in:
    • Spinich, carrots, broccoli, and other dark green or yellow orange fruits and veggies, liver and plums.
  40. Vitamin E
    • Protects cell membranes
    • seems to improve elasticity in blood vessels
    • may prevent formation of blood clots and protect red blood cells from damage by oxidation
    • FOUND in:
    • wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, raw wheat germ, almonds, pecans, peanut oil, and cod liver oil
  41. Vitamin D
    • Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorous
    • normal growth of healthy bones, teeth, and nails
    • Formed by the action of the sun on the skin
    • FOUND in:
    • halibut liver oil, herring, cod liver oil, mackerel, salmon, and tuna
  42. Thiamin/B1
    • Functioning of nerves
    • muscle growth
    • fertility
    • Production of energy, appetite, and digestion
    • FOUND in:
    • pork, legumes, nuts, enriched and fortified whole grains, and liver
  43. Riboflavin/B2
    • Aids production of red blood cells
    • good vision
    • healthy skin and mouth tissue
    • production of energy
    • FOUND in:
    • lean meat, dairy products, liver, eggs, enriched and fortified whole grains, and green leafy veggies
  44. Niacin/B3
    • Promotes energy production, appetite, digestive and nervous system
    • healthy skin and tongue
  45. Pyridoxine/B6
    • Red blood cell formation and growth
    • FOUND in:
    • liver, beans, pork, fish, legumes, enriched and fortified whole grains, and green leafy veggies
  46. Vitamin B12
    • Healthy nerve tissue
    • energy production
    • utilization of folic acid
    • aids in the formation of healthy red blood cells
    • FOUND in:
    • dairy products, liver, meat, poultry, fish, and eggs
  47. Vitamin C
    • Promotes healing and growth
    • resists infection
    • increases iron absorption
    • aids in bone and tooth formation/repair
    • FOUND in:
    • citrus fruits, cantaloupe, potatoes, strawberries, tomatoes, and green veggies
  48. Sodium
    • Normal water balance inside and outside cells
    • blood pressure regulation and electrolyte and chemical balance
    • FOUND in:
    • salt, processed foods, bread, and bakery products
  49. Potassium
    • Volume and balance of body fluids
    • prevents muscle weakness and cramping
    • important for normal heart rhythm and electrolyte balance in the blood
    • FOUND in:
    • citrus fruits, leafy green veggies, potatoes, and tomatoes
  50. Zinc
    • Taste
    • appetite
    • healthy skin
    • wound healing
    • FOUND in:
    • lean meat, liver, milk, fish, poultry, whole grain cereals, and shellfish
  51. Iron
    • Red blood cell formation
    • oxygen transport to the cells
    • prevents nutritional anemia
    • FOUND in:
    • liver, lean meats, dried beans, peas, eggs, dark green leafy veggies, and whole grain cereals
  52. Calcium
    • Strong bones, teeth, nails, muscle tone
    • Prevents osteoporosis and muscle cramping
    • helps the nerves function and the heart beat
    • FOUND in:
    • milk, yogurt, other dairy products, and dark leafy veggies
  53. Phosphorous
    • regulates blood chemistry and internal processes
    • strong bones and teeth
    • FOUND in:
    • meat, fish, poultry, dairy products
  54. Magnesium
    • Energy production
    • normal heart rhythm
    • nerve/muscle function
    • prevents muscle cramps
    • FOUND in:
    • dried beans, nuts, whole grains, bananas, and leafy green veggies
  55. Fractures
    any break in a bone is a fracture
  56. Simple fracture
    a break in the bone
  57. comminuted fracture or shattered
    many breaks in the bone
  58. Compound fracture
    a break in the bone and skin
  59. First Aid: Fractures
    • immobilize
    • use ice to control swelling
    • seek medical aid
    • (Compound- stop the bleeding)
  60. Shock
    • a severe compression of circulation caused by injury or illness
    • symptoms include:
    • cool clammy skin
    • rapid weak pulse
  61. First Aid: Shock
    • minimize heat loss
    • elevate legs without disturbing the rest of the body
    • seek medical help
  62. Sprain
    • an injury to a joint caused by the joint being moved too far or away from its range of motion
    • both ligaments and tendons can be injured
    • ligaments join bone to bone
    • tendons join muscle to bone
  63. First Aid: Sprain
    • R.I.C.E
    • rest
    • ice
    • compression
    • elevation
  64. Strain
    a muscle injury caused by overwork
  65. First Aid: Strain
    • use ice to lessen the swelling
    • some heat after can be beneficial
  66. Dislocation
    a joint injury in which bone ends are moved out of place at the joints and ligaments holding them are severely stretched and torn.
  67. First Aid:
    • immobilize and seek medical help
    • Some people advocate popping the dislocation break into place but this can be risky for both people involved
  68. Heat exhaustion
    • symptoms include:
    • cold clammy skin
    • nausea
    • dizziness
    • paleness
  69. First Aid: Heat exhaustion
    • increasing water intake
    • replacing salt
    • getting out of the heat
  70. Heat stroke
    • High fever
    • dry skin
    • may be unconscious
  71. First Aid: Heat Stroke
    • attempt to cool off gradually
    • get into the shade
    • seed medical attention immediately
  72. CPR
    • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • technique used to provide artificial circulation and respiration.
    • a= airway
    • b= breathing
    • c= circulation
    • check the airway to make sure it is open, and check breathing and circulation
  73. Heart Attack
    • Symptoms may include:
    • shortness of breath
    • pain in the left arm
    • pain in the chest
    • nausea
    • sweating
  74. First Aid: Heart Attack
    • elevate the head and chest
    • give CPR if indicated
    • seem medical assistance
  75. Seizures
    generally caused by epilepsy
  76. First Aid: Seizures
    • Clear the area so victim is not injured during the seizure
    • do not place anything in the mouth
    • seek medical help after the seizure if necessary
  77. Perceptual motor concepts
    • balance
    • coordination
    • lateral movement
    • directional movement
    • awareness of space
    • knowledge of one's own body
  78. Locomotor skills
    • moving the body from place to place
    • walking, jumping, hopping, skipping, leaping, galloping, and sliding
  79. Nonlocamotor skills
    • done in place or with very little movement from place to place.
    • bending, stretching, pushing, pulling, raising, lowering, twisting, turning, shaking, and bouncing
  80. Manipulative skills
    • used when the child handles a play object
    • hand-eye and foot-eye coordination are improved
    • throwing, batting, kicking, and catching, reaching, grasping
  81. Movement education
    enables children to make choices of activity and the methods they wish to employ
Card Set:
2013-08-21 01:53:37

Physical Education Review
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