Psych Chapter 6

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Psych Chapter 6
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2013-08-19 23:14:45
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Psych Chapter 6
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  1. Stimulus response psychology
    The attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response
  2. Unconditioned Reflexes
    Automatic connections between a stimulus, such as food, and a response, such as secreting digestive juices
  3. Classic conditioning or Pavlovian Conditioning
    Process by which an organism learns a new association between new stimuli. A neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a new reflexive response

    Ringing a bell and feeding a dog
  4. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    An event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response

    Food is eliciting response, the response is salivating
  5. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    The action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits

    Salivating
  6. Conditioned Stimulus
    Response to it depends on the preceding conditions that is pairing the CS with the UCS
  7. Conditioned Response (CR)
    Whatever response the conditioned stimulus elicits as a result of the conditioned procedure
  8. Extinction
    To extinguish a classically conditioned response repeatedly present, the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
  9. Spontaneous Recovery
    A temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay
  10. Stimulus Generalization
    Extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli
  11. Drug tolerance
    Users of certain drugs experience progressively weaker effects after taking the drugs repeatedly
  12. Blocking Effect
    The previously established association to one stimulus blocks the formation of an association to the added stimulus
  13. learning curve
    A graph of the changes in behavior that occur over the course of learning
  14. Reinforcement
    Process of increasing the future probability of the most recent response
  15. Law of effect
    The most successful responses become more likely in the future. Those responses become more frequent, and the animal does not need to understand why

    Ex: Animal avoiding its prey
  16. Operant Conditioning
    The process of changing behavior by providing reinforcement after a response

    In operant conditioning, the subjects behavior produces an outcome that effects future behavior. In classical conditioning, the subjects behavior has no effect.
  17. Visceral Responses
    Responses of the internal organs, such as salvation and digestion

    Ex: Classical conditioning uses these
  18. Skeletal Responses
    Movements of leg muscles, arm muscles, etc.

    Ex: This is what operant conditioning applies mainly to
  19. Disequilibrium Principle
    Anything that prevents an activity produces disequilibrium, and an opportunity to return to equilibrium will be reinforcing
  20. Primary Reinforcers (Unconditioned reinforcer)
    Are reinforcing because of their own properties

    (food and water)
  21. Secondary Reinforcers
    Become reinforcing by association with something else

    (Money)
  22. Punishment
    Decreases the probability of a response
  23. Positive Reinforcement
    Presenting something such as food for a reward
  24. Negative Reinforcement
    Avoiding something such as pain
  25. Extinction
    Occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements
  26. Stimulus Generalization
    The more similar a new stimulus is to the original reinforced stimulus, the more likely it is the same response.

    Ex: hearing a bell and hearing a gong
  27. Discrimination
    If reinforcement occurs for responding to one stimulus and not another, the response is discrimination between them, yielding a response to one stimulus and not the other
  28. Discriminative Stimulus
    A stimulus that indicates which response is appropriate or inappropriate

    Ex: Learn ordinarily to be quiet during lecture, but talk when the professor encourages discussion
  29. Stimulus Control
    The ability of a stimulus to encourage some responses and discourage others is known as stimulus control
  30. Chaining
    Reinforcing each one with the opportunity to engage with the next one

    Ex: Your learn to eat with a fork and spoon, you learn to go to the store and buy the food, cook it, and eat it
  31. Continuous Reinforcement
    To provide reinforcement for every correct response
  32. Intermittent Reinforcement
    Reinforcement for some responses and not others
  33. Schedules of Reinforcement
    Rules for the delivery of reinforcement
  34. Fixed-ratio schedule
    Provides reinforcement only after a certain, fixed number of correct responses
  35. Variable Ratio Schedule
    Similar to a fixed-ratio schedule, except reinforcement occurs after a variable of correct responses
  36. Fixed-Interval Schedule
    Provides Reinforcement for the first response after a specific time interval
  37. Variable Interval Schedule
    Reinforcement is available after a variable amount of time

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