School of Psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the processes of learning.
An intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals.
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual.
Branch of psychology that studies the behavior or different animal species.
Control Group or Control Condition
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.
A numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship (the correlation) between two variables.
A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related to factors are to each other.
The active processes of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluation evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations for research finding or other phenomena.
Branch of psychology that studies the effect of culture on behavior and mental processes.
The attitudes, values,beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another.
I a research study, subtle clues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is expected from the participant.
The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable; also called the outcome variable.
Descriptive Research Methods
Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events.
An experimental control in which neither the participants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
Verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.
The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tenancy to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
The application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena.
Experimental Group or Experimental Conditions
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable.
A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.
A factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could effect the outcome of the experiment; also called confounding variable.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)
A noninvasive image technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels.
Early school of psychology that emphasizes studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences.
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each persons unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question.
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the treatment variable.
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body's structure and tissues, using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in response to magnetic field.
Any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences.
A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify specific trends.
A study investigating the effects of a naturally occurring event on the research participant.
The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting.
A finding that two factors vary systematically in two different directions, one increasing as the other decreases.
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured.
Any change attributed to a person's beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment, or procedure; also called expectancy effect.
A fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no direct effect.
A finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together.
The study of positive emotions and physiological state, positive individual traits, and the social intuitions that foster positive individuals and communities.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of radioactivity tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug.
Any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task.
Fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.
Medical specialty area focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders.
Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior.
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
The process to assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study
Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a lager group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study.
To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings.
A selected segment that vary closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
A selected segment of the population used to represent the group being studied.
a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawling conclusions.
A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance.
A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize, and interpret data.
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, of conscious experiences.
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the options, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
A tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations.
A factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.