Flashcards Chapter One

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Flashcards Chapter One
2013-08-21 13:55:46

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  1. Behaviorism

      Page 8
    School of Psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the processes of learning.
  2. Case Study

     Page 23
    An intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals.
  3. Collectivistic Cultures 

       Page 13
    Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual.
  4. Comparative Psychology 

        Page 37
    Branch of psychology that studies the behavior or different animal species.
  5. Control Group or Control Condition 

      Page 30
    In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.
  6. Correlation Coefficient

     Page 25
    A numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship (the correlation) between two variables.
  7. Correlational Study

    Page 25
    A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related to factors are to each other.
  8. Critical Thinking

    Page 18
    The active processes of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluation evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations for research finding or other phenomena.
  9. Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Page 13
    Branch of psychology that studies the effect of culture on behavior and mental processes.
  10. Culture

     Page 13
    The attitudes, values,beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another.
  11. Demand Characteristics

     Page 29
    I a research study, subtle clues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is expected from the participant.
  12. Dependent variable

     Page 27
    The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable; also called the outcome variable.
  13. Descriptive Research Methods

      Page 21
    Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events.
  14. Double-Blind Technique

     Page 28
    An experimental control in which neither the participants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
  15. Empirical Evidence

     Page 17
    Verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.
  16. Ethnocentrism

     Page 13
    The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tenancy to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
  17. Evolutionary Psychology 

     Page 12
    The application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena.
  18. Experimental Group or Experimental Conditions

      Page 28
    In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable.
  19. Experimental Method

     Page 27
    A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.
  20. Extraneous Variable

      Page 27
    A factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could effect the outcome of the experiment; also called confounding variable.
  21. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)

      Page 34
    A noninvasive image technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels.
  22. Functionalism

    Page 5
    Early school of psychology that emphasizes studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences.
  23. Humanistic Psychology

     Page 9
    School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each persons unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
  24. Hypotheses

     Page 17
    A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question.
  25. Independent Variable

    Page 27
    The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the treatment variable.
  26. Individualistic Cultures

      Page 13
    Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.
  27. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

     Page 34
    A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body's structure and tissues, using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in response to magnetic field.
  28. Main Effect 

     Page 29
    Any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences.
  29. Meta-analysis

    Page 20
    A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify specific trends.
  30. Natural Experiment

    Page 32
    A study investigating the effects of a naturally occurring event on the research participant.
  31. Naturalistic Observation

    Page 21
    The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting.
  32. Negative Correlation

    Page 26
    A finding that two factors vary systematically in two different directions, one increasing as the other decreases.
  33. Neuroscience

    Page 10
    The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
  34. Operational Definition

    Page 18
    A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured.
  35. Placebo Affect

    Page 28
    Any change attributed to a person's beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment, or procedure; also called expectancy effect.
  36. Placebo

    Page 28
    A fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no direct effect.
  37. Positive Correlation

    Page 26
    A finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together.
  38. Positive Psychology

    Page 11
    The study of positive emotions and physiological state, positive individual traits, and the social intuitions that foster positive individuals and communities.
  39. Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)

    Page 34
    An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of radioactivity tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug.
  40. Practice Effect

    Page 29
    Any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task.
  41. Pseudoscience

    Page 22
    Fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.
  42. Psychiatry

    Page 16
    Medical specialty area focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders.
  43. Psychoanalysis

    Page 7
    Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior.
  44. Psychology

    Page 3
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  45. Random Assignment

    Page 28
    The process to assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study
  46. Random Selection

    Page 24
    Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a lager group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study.
  47. Replicate 

    Page 20
    To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings.
  48. Representative Sample

    Page 24
    A selected segment that vary closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
  49. Sample 

    Page 24
    A selected segment of the population used to represent the group being studied.
  50. Scientific Method 

    Page 27
    a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawling conclusions.
  51. Statistically Significant 

    Page 19
    A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance.
  52. Statistics 

    Page 19
    A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize, and interpret data.
  53. Structuralism

    Page 5
    Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, of conscious experiences.
  54. Survey

    Page 24
    A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the options, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
  55. Theory 

    Page 21
    A tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations.
  56. Variable

    Page 18
    A factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.