BCN1 Chpt 9, 10 & 14

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BCN1 Chpt 9, 10 & 14
2013-08-22 12:23:17
BCN1 Chpt 10 14

BCN1 Chpt 9, 10 & 14
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  1. Characteristics that make social identity important to a person.
    • Similiartiy 
    • Distinctiveness
    • status
    • uncertainty reduction
  2. social identity theory
    Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups.
  3. Group
    Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
  4. Formal Group
    A designated work group defined by an organization’s structure.
  5. Informal Group
    A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact.
  6. Ingroup favoritism
    i Perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.
  7. Five-stage group model
    The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  8. forming stage
    The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty.
  9. The Stomring Stage
    is one of intragroup conflict. Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
  10. norming stage
    The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
  11. Performing Stage
    The fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully functional.
  12. Adjourning Stage
    The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
  13. punctuated-equilibrium model
    A set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity.
  14. Role
    A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
  15. Role Perspective
    An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  16. Role  Expectations
    How others believe a person should act in a given situation.
  17. psychological contract
    An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa.
  18. Role Conflict
    A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
  19. Norms
    Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
  20. conformity
    The adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.
  21. reference groups
    Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
  22. deviant workplace behavior
    Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility.
  23. status
    A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.
  24. status characteristics theory
    A theory that states that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups.
  25. What are the three sources of status characteristics theory
    • 1. The power a person wields over others
    • 2. A Person's ability to contribute to a groups's goals 
    • 3. An individuals personal characteristics
  26. Social Loafing
    The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
  27. cohesiveness
    The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
  28. What can you do to encourage group cohesiveness?
    (1) Make the group smaller, (2) encourage agreement with group goals, (3) increase the time members spend together, (4) increase the group’s status and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership, (5) stimulate competition with other groups, (6) give rewards to the group rather than to individual members, and (7) physically isolate the group.
  29. diversity
    The extent to which members of a group are similar to, or different from, one another.
  30. groupthink
    A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
  31. groupshift
    A change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position.
  32. interacting groups
    Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face.
  33. brainstorming
    An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
  34. nominal group technique
    A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
  35. electronic meeting
    A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.
  36. work group
    A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
  37. work team
    A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  38. Problem Solving Teams
    Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.
  39. self-managed work teams
    Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  40. cross-functional teams
    Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
  41. virutal teams
    Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  42. multiteam systems
    Systems in which different teams need to coordinate their efforts to produce a desired outcome.
  43. organizational demography
    The degree to which members of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover.
  44. reflexitivity
    A team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary.
  45. mental models
    Team members’ knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team.
  46. Conflict
    as a process that begins when one party perceives another party has or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about.
  47. traditional view of conflict
    The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.
  48. interactionist view of conflict
    The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively.
  49. functional conflict
    Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.
  50. dysfunctional conflict
    Conflict that hinders group performance.
  51. Task Conflict
    relates to the content and goals of the work
  52. Relationship Conflict
    focuses on interpersonal relationships
  53. process conflict
    relates to how the work gets done
  54. conflict process
    A process that has five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes.
  55. perceived conflict
    Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
  56. felt conflict
    Emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
  57. Conflict Process
    conflict process A process that has five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes.
  58. Intentions
    Decisions to act in a given way.
  59. competing
    A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict.
  60. collaborating
    A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.
  61. avoiding
    The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
  62. compromising
    A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
  63. Conflict Manangment
    The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
  64. negotiation
    A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.
  65. distributive bargaining
    Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win–lose situation.
  66. Fixed Pie
    The belief that there is only a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up between the parties.
  67. integrative bargaining
    Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win–win solution.i
  68. five steps of negotiations
    (1) preparation and planning, (2) definition of ground rules, (3) clarification and justification, (4) bargaining and problem solving, and (5) closure and implementation.59
  69. BATNA
    The best alternative to a negotiated agreement; the least the individual should accept.
  70. mediator
    A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives.
  71. arbitrator
    A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement.
  72. conciliator
    A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.