Forestry general

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Forestry general
2013-08-20 11:43:30

General quiz questions
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  1. How many square feet in an acre?
    43,560 square feet
  2. An instrument for measuring the speed orforce of the wind is called . . .
    An anemometer.
  3. The layer of wood - including springwoodand summerwood is called . . .
    An annual ring.
  4. What is the cambium layer?
    One cell’s thickness of tissue between thebark and wood that repeatedly divides toform new wood and bark cells.
  5. Trees that have leaves instead of needlesand often called hardwoods are what?
    Broadleaf or deciduous trees.
  6. What are budscale scars?
    Scars left where terminal budscalesformed, often visible for several years.
  7. Name two methods of reproducing trees artificially.
    1) Cuttings 2) Budding and grafting
  8. What is a conifer?
    Trees and shrubs, mostly evergreens, including former (as pines) with true cone sand other (as yews) with arellate fruit.
  9. What is a cutting?
    • A short piece of vigorous branch or stem
    • of the past season's growth used in artificial
    • reproduction of trees.
  10. The head of foliage of a tree or shrub -part of a tree bearing limbs or branches,including twigs, leaves, flowers and fruit isreferred to as the __________.
  11. The mass of leaves of a plant is referred to as __________.
  12. In the process of grafting, what is a host?
    The root stock to which the scion is grafted.
  13. In the process of grafting, what is a scion?
    A vigorous twig or cutting grafted to a root stock to artificially reproduce trees.
  14. What is grafting?
    A method of reproducing a tree byjoining the scion from one plant to the rootstock of a plant of the same genus called thehost tree.
  15. The offspring of two different species orgenera which often has greater vigor thanthe parent stock is called ______
    A hybrid
  16. What is an increment borer?
    A tool to determine growth or tree age from a small sample bored from the trunk of trees.
  17. What are lateral roots?
    Roots of nearly equal size growing fromthe bottom of the trunk at ground level orjust below.
  18. Trees with bean-like pods such as blacklocust belong to a group called _____.
  19. What are lenticels?
    A pore in the stem of woody plants that isthe path of exchange of gases between theatmosphere and stem tissue.
  20. What is natural reproduction?
    The reproduction or growing of trees from seed or roots, without human assistance.
  21. What is phloem?
    Inner bark, the principal or main tissue which carries food or sugar made in the leaves down to the roots.
  22. What is pith?
    Small core of soft, spongy tissue at the growth center of the stem.
  23. What are resin blisters?
    Lumps or blisters of a yellowish to brown natural organic substance formed by plant secretions, usually on conifers.
  24. The stage in a tree's growth from germination to the point where it is no more than six feet high and inch in diameter is called a __________.
  25. What is a species?
    Group of organisms having similarcharacteristics and showing closerelationship to each other
  26. What is that part of the annual grow thring formed during the early part of the season's growth called?
  27. A new stem growing from a stump or root is called a __________.
  28. Small openings through which the leaf exchanges gases are called __________.
  29. To store seeds in layers, alternating with moisture holding materials such as sand,earth or peat is to __________.
  30. New growth as from buds hidden in the bark and previously shaded by other growth is called a __________.
  31. What is the portion of the annual growth ring called which is formed after springwood formation has stopped?
  32. What is the deep central or primary root that grows vertically downward called
    Tap root
  33. What is the final bud of a branch or stem called?
    Terminal bud
  34. What are lateral buds?
    Buds growing below or behind the terminal bud.
  35. What is the layering or grouping of branches at the beginning of each year's growth called?
  36. What is xylem?
    Inner bark cells that conduct water and nutrients upward and form the strengthening and storage tissues of branches, stems and roots.
  37. What is a tree?
    A woody plant over 20 feet tall with a well-defined crown and commonly a single stem.
  38. What is a shrub?
    A woody plant between 6 and 20 feet tall lacking a well-defined crown, and having few to many stems.
  39. What part of the trunk is inactive, because the cells have died, but provides strength to that trunk?
  40. How can the age of a tree be determined?
    Count rings on the stump; count rings in the core from an increment borer.
  41. What are compound leaves?
    A single leaf with many leaflets.
  42. What gas is given off by trees in their active growth process?
  43. What is meant by alternate branching or bud arrangement?
    Buds or branches grow in staggered intervals along the twig or stem.
  44. How do trees provide a cooling effect in the summer?
    Shade from sun and evaporation of moisture through the leaves.
  45. Why is it warmer in the woods in the winter than in a field?
    Trees break up wind patterns, reducing their cooling effect.
  46. Where is the food for trees manufactured and what is the process called?
    Leaves; photosynthesis
  47. What is the basic function of the outer bark of a tree?
    Protection from injuries.
  48. Cells are the building blocks of both the xylem and phloem. Where are these cells created?
  49. What will happen to a tree if the cambium is destroyed all around the trunk?
  50. What is the term which refers to all weather components such as temperature, moisture, wind and evaporation?
  51. What is a climax forest?
    A. The stable stage of a tree and plant community which has stabilized its population after all stages of succession; this stage stays the same as long as the climate and soil remain unchanged by nature or people.
  52. A tree or tree species which grows better and taller than any other in the stand or forest is referred to as a __________.
  53. Elevation refers to . . .
    Height above sea level
  54. Trees that need full sunlight to grow well are termed __________.
    Shade intolerant.
  55. A substance formed in a living cell that influences the activity of other cells is called__________.
    A hormone
  56. Practices of land management that serve two or more forest values are called__________.
    Multiple use.
  57. A forest management practice which uses controlled fires is called_______________.
    Prescribed burning
  58. The beginning of a new tree's life cycle is called __________.
  59. What is sawtimber?
    Those trees large enough in diameter(usually >14" dbh) to saw into boards.
  60. The portion of water from rain, snow and fog that flows over land and eventually reaches streams is called __________.
  61. What is the term used to describe a group of trees in the same area suitable for the same kind of management?
    A stand
  62. What is the term for progressive growth of a forested area from pioneer plants to a climax forest?
  63. What is topography?
    The shape or form of the land surface, changes in elevation.
  64. Why would you thin a stand of trees?
    To remove poor quality and slow-growing trees and allow the most commercially desirable trees more space for their crowns and roots to grow.
  65. What two things does planting or seeding do for a present or future forest area?
    • 1) Promotes the most desirable species to be present on the land
    • 2) Assures proper spacing of trees to allow the best growth conditions.
  66. Which method of regeneration has the greatest control of numbers of trees in the area?
  67. What is the principal softwood used for lumber in Massachusetts?
    White pine
  68. What forest industry sponsors the National 4-H Forestry Invitational?
    International Paper Company.
  69. Dendrology is . . .
    The identification and classification of trees.
  70. What are the three major parts of a tree?
    Crown, trunk, roots.
  71. What are the growing parts of a tree?
    The buds, root tips and cambium.
  72. In wood anatomy - what is a ray?
    A ribbon-shaped strand of tissue formed by the cambium and extending in a radial direction from bark to pith.
  73. What is lignin?
    The non-carbohydrate, structuralconstituent of wood which encrusts the cellwalls and cements them together.
  74. What is the Tree Farm System?
    A national organization which recognizes landowners who are practicing good forest management, and which provides information and assistance to them.
  75. What percent of the earth's surface is covered by trees?
    One-third of the earth's surface and approximately one-third of the continental United States.
  76. Explain what a midrib is.
    The largest vein in a leaf, usually running length wise along the axis from base to tip.
  77. What is forest utilization?
    That branch of forestry concerned with the operation of harvesting and marketing the forest crop and other resources of the forest.
  78. What part of a tree carries water and minerals from the roots to the crown?
    Sapwood and xylem.
  79. What is the general formula for photosynthesis?
    Carbon dioxide + water + chlorophyll +sunlight = glucose + oxygen.
  80. What does decidere mean?
    To fall off.
  81. What is a forestry technician?
    A person who is familiar with the principal field activities connected with the practice of forestry. Usually trained in vocational, technical, or ranger school as distinguished from a professional forestry course at university.
  82. What is germination?
    The process where viable seeds meet favorable conditions that allow them to burst through their seed coats and grow.
  83. What is multiple land use?
    A term used to indicate the management of timber, wildlife, watersheds and recreation in an integrated, consolidated program.
  84. On what continent are maples most abundant?
  85. What is the tool called used in firefighting that is made from a square of rubber attached to the end of a stick?
    A flap
  86. What is a forest called from which trees have never been cut?
    Virgin forest
  87. What is arboriculture?
    The science and art of growing trees,especially as ornamental or shade trees in an urban environment.
  88. What is a section?
    A unit of land measurement, 640 acres, 1 mile or 80 chains square; 1/36 of a township.
  89. What is silvics?
    The study of life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands,with particular reference to environmental factors.
  90. What is the top layer of a tree’s vertical stratification?
  91. What is the common name for the leaves of a pine tree?
  92. How many species of pines are native to the U.S.?
  93. What are four things the annual rings of a tree can record?
    1) age, 2) fire, 3) drought, 4) disease
  94. What is the most widely distributed conifer of tree size in the United States?
    Eastern redcedar
  95. What ash is the most widely distributed?
    Green ash
  96. How many species of hickories are there?
  97. What is the most commercially used hardwood?
  98. What is the most commercially used softwood?
  99. What is the greatest limitation for growth of urban trees?
    The rooting space
  100. Why are monocultures not a good choice for the urban forest?
    Susceptibility to insect and disease problems.
  101. Define the term "agroforestry
    The intentional integration of agronomic crops, tree crops and/or animals (usually livestock) on the same land area, usually at the same time.
  102. What are the five agroforestry techniques?
    • 1) Alley cropping
    • 2) Windbreaks
    • 3) Riparian buffer strips
    • 4) Silvopasture
    • 5) Forest farming