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Biases vs. Stereotypes
Biases: opinions or beliefs that affect a person's ability to make fair, unclouded judgements or decisions; can include brands
Stereotypes: oversimplified opinions, that do not acct for individual differences, about an entire group of people.
The Author's purpose:
- Purpose: main reason for writing a piece.
- a. narrative: tells a story/chain of events
- b. expository: introduces/explains subject; gives groundwork to understand later ideas or analyzes info objectively.
- c. Technical: precise info
- d. Persuasive: get reader to agree with author.
Topic vs. Main Idea
- Topic: The general subject matter.
- Main Idea: work's specific message; reason for text being written.
- Supporting details: flesh out, explain the main idea
- Themes: subjects that a written work frequently touches upon; simply ideas/concepts that are repeated.
Topic & Summary Sentences:
- Topic Sentence: main point of a paragraph.
- Summary sentences: generally appear at or near the end of a paragraphy, drives the message home (conclusion) or they draw a conclusion that goes one step further than the topic sentence (an actual conclusion from the evidence/supporting points)
a descriptive word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
ex. soccer, young
Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement
- a pronoun replaces a noun so that the noun does not have to be repeated; antecedent: the noun that the pronoun refers back to.
- --> pronouns/antecedents must agree in number. Ex: apples (plural antecedent)=They ( plural pronoun).
- I, you, she, he, it, them, they, you, yours, his, hers, me, mine, my
a word that describes a verb and indicates when, how, where, why or how much.
- ex. The quarterback threw the football hard.
- Hard describes the verb threw and answers the question "how?"
A group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb
Subject. Vs. Direct object
Subject: Noun/Pronoun that PERFORMS the action of the verb
The noun or pronoun that RECEIVES the action of the verb; answers the question "whom?", or "what?".
- The Young boys enjoy soccer practice.
- -"younger" & "Soccer" are adjectives.
a group of words that are related but do not contain a verb and a subject together
Subject & Linking Verbs
- a noun/pronoun that PERFORMS the action of the verb.
- -If a sentence contains a verb of being (aka linking verb: is, are, was) then the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described.
be, feel, become,or look.
a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb.
- 1st: Figure out if the subject is singular/plural
- 2nd: determine which verbs are singular/plural by thinking of he/she (insert verbs) as singular and They (insert verbs) as plural
- RULES:-OR/NOR: Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. (Neither Jack nor Jill enjoys..)
- -AND: requires plural verb; (Jack and Jill enjoy...)
- -singular pronouns: nobody, everybody, every one, somebody
a noun that a pronoun refers back to a pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number(singular or plural).
ex. mom went to the store before I could remind her to buy ingredients for my favorite dish, her special spicy spaghetti.
- guided tour-noun
- he or she- pronoun
- Words join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal; shows the sentences to have the same weight.
- ex. for, and, nor, but, or, yet (FANBOY)
- For ex: My mom went shopping yesterday, but she forgot milk.
Words that join two or more clauses and showing independence of the other.
Can show stress...not equal weight of both sentences.
ex. because,though,although,as, as if, when, and while
example: Although mom went shopping yesterday, she forgot milk.
To make a noun from a verb, adverb, or adjective.
ex. He had a negative reaction to the nutritionists presentation. (rather than, "He reacted negatively..")
common root words
- therm- heat
simple sentence structure
A sentence that contains: only one clause a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb) that has a complete meaning.
a clause ( a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb)that has a complete meaning.
ex.I am going away from this noisy, crowded cafeteria
a clause that is made dependent or incomplete because of the addition of a subordinating conjunction.
I am going. Don't cry. Never fear. I'll return.
differs from a simple sentence because it contains two independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon.
ex. I enjoy watching golf matches on television, especially on Sundays near the end of the tournanamets, but I also like to play golf with friends at our local nine-hole course.
is a independent and dependent clause put together.
ex. when I was younger, I asked for a space suit every year for christmas.
Words that sounds alike but are spelled/mean diff.
- -ascent (slope) vs assent (agreement)
- -capital (governing city) vs. capitol ( a building)
- -complement (completion) vs. Compliment (appreciation)
- -descent (down slope) vs. dissent (disagreement)
- -principal (leader) vs. Principle ( belief)
- -stationary (not moving) vs. stationery (paper)
- -Whose (belonging to whom) vs. Who's (who is)
- geopgraphical locations
- cardinal directions
- government bodies
- jistorical events
- days of the week
- special events
- calendar items
- rank of honor
- family relationships (uncle)
- seasons "if personalized or an event"
Do not capitalize
- cardinal directions ex. (drive east or western Kansas)
- a title or rank after it follows a name
- family relationships when proceeded by a possessive (my,her,your, name)
- Deities when spoken of gods in general
- any two words or phrases in a series to three or more should be separated by a comma.
- ex. red,green,and yellow balloons were chosen for decorations.
introductory yes and no
a city from a state and after the state
day and date. ex Friday, January 17, 2011
between two related independent clauses
- conjunctive adverbs such as: however or therefore that connects equal ranked elements
- a series of elements that contains more than one comma.
ex. He is annoying; he has a bold, obdurate personality; and he delights in the displeasure of others.
used to enclose supplementary or explanatory material that interrupts the main sentence. All question marks and exclamation points should be entered within the parentheses.
If the material within a pair of parentheses is a complete sentence that is not located within another sentence, a period should be added before the closing parenthesis.
ex. I haven't been to the movies in a year. (It is too expensive.)
If the parentheses occur within a sentence, a period before the closing parenthesis is unnecssary.
I don't want anything to eat right now (had a bad day).
to form the possessive case of a plural noun that ends in an s, it is generally considered appropriate to add only the apostrophe.
ex. the trees' leaves looked beautiful.
- use in certain expressions of time.
- ex. a week's vacation.
to show omission of letters or numbers as in contractions or dates.
ex. can't or class of '05
How to Balance/Reconcile a Savings Account:
- 1. Group/add DEPOSITS together.
- 2. Group/add CHECKS together.
- 3. Add DEPOSITS to PREVIOUS BALANCE
- 4. Substract CHECKS form this RESULT.
- 5. Subtract SERVICE CHARGE
- 6. Add INTEREST.
- Sooo basically:
- Previous balance +deposits/credits - withdrawal/checks/debts - service charge + interest
Rate of Change Problems (pg 84)
-determines the difference in completion times for a given tasks.
2nd: Then same way; figure out Student B
- examples 2.39: Student A reads 10 pages/Hour. Student B reads 18 pgs in an hour. Each has a 288 book to complete. At this rate; how much sooner will student B complete the book?
- 1st: Figure out student A's speed to finish.
- --Ratio : (10pgs/1 hr) (288 pgs/ ? hrs)
3rd: Subtract B's time from A.
Roman Numeral to Arabic Conversions
I V(ant) X(axophones) L(ike) C(ows) D(rink) M(ilk)
*when IXC is used to left of a larger value, substract it from the large value
two answers; two negatives.
Multiplying Fractions vs. Adding them
- Mutliplying: Mult top & bottom
- Add/Subtract: Find Common DENOMINATOR.