Liturgical Terms

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Liturgical Terms
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  1. Absolution
    • aka "Assurance of Pardon"
    • A statement by the president of the service (or other leader) of God's love and willingness to forgive the sins of the penitent, most often following the confession. (In some traditions, the statement of absolution is reserved to ordained ministers.)
  2. A cappella
    Choral music sung without instrumental accompaniment.
  3. Advent
    From the Latin word for "coming," Advent is the period four weeks before Christmas (ending on Christmas Eve) during which the Christian community prepares for the celebration of the Incarnation. "Coming" not only refers to the birth of Jesus, but also to the second coming of Christ in the end times.
  4. Advent wreath
    A circle of green branches (usually evergreen) with four colored candles, one to be lit on each of the four Sundays before Christmas. Often a fifth candle, placed in the center of the wreath, is lighted on Christmas Day as a sign of the coming of Christ who is the Light of the World.
  5. Affirmation of Faith
    A statement of Christian belief made by the congregation (sometimes in a responsive form). Although generally this is the also definition of a creed, when the term affirmation of faith is used it indicates that the words employed are not he words of one of the historic ecumenical creeds of the church (i.e., the Apostles', Nicene, or Athanasian Creeds).
  6. Agape
    • aka the "Love Feast"
    • The fellowship meal of the earliest Christian communities referred to in 1 Corinthians 11. During this meal, some of the bread and wine were specially set apart for the Lord's Supper. Quite soon the meal was separated from the bread and cup ritual, and disappeared altogether. Revived among Moravians and the early Methodists, and more recently advocated by those planning ecumenical services.
  7. Alb
    A long white tunic used as the "undergarment" for other vestments worn by participants (both clergy and lay) in a service of public worship. Sometimes it is belted with a rope or "cincture."
  8. Altar-table
    The piece of liturgical furniture on which the bread and wine for the Lord's Supper are placed. The presider at the service stands behind the table facing the congregation. Sometimes simply called the "altar" or the "Communion table."
  9. Ambo
    See pulpit.
  10. Amen.
    The congregation's response to prayers said on their behalf by a worship leader. It derives from the Hebrew word meaning "trust."
  11. Anamnesis
    From the Greek root meaning "to remember" or "to re-present," the anamnesis is a portion of the Great Thanksgiving, usually following the words of institution, in which the community declares that it is committed to remembering God's action in its behalf.
  12. Anointing
    The application of oil, usually to a person's head, to signify healing, commitment to serve, or initiation. See also unctio in extremis.
  13. Anthem
    A piece of music sung by the choir, usually a setting of a biblical or liturgical text.
  14. Antiphon
    A verse from Scripture which is repeated as a response to a psalm, a canticle, or a prayer.
  15. Apostles' Creed
    An affirmation of faith which originated in the third century as the first profession of adherence to Christ for those being baptized.
  16. Apse
    The semicircular niche at the east (altar) end of a church building. Originally the apse was the place where the presiders' chairs were located.
  17. Ash Wednesday
    The first day of the season of Lent. Traditionally, Ash Wednesday has been a day of corporate penitence and fasting, signified by the making of a cross-shaped mark with ashes on the forehead of worshipers.
  18. Athanasian Creed
    The third of the so-called "ecumenical creeds," devised to combat certain doctrinal errors at the turn of the fifth century. In past times, the Athanasian Creed was required to be said on Trinity Sunday and on certain other holy days, but its use is becoming obsolete (see creed).
  19. Baptism
    The washing with water of a person as a part of the process of Christian initiation.
  20. Benediction
    See blessing.
  21. Bidding
    An exhortation in which the congregation is asked (or "bidden") to pray. Often this simply consists of the words "Let us pray." Also called the "Call to Prayer." A bidding can occur many times in a service.
  22. Blessing
    • aka the "Benediction"
    • A declaration, usually by the presider and in the subjective mood ("may such-and-such be the case") which calls for God's blessing on the congregation before they are dismissed (see dismissal). Also used for other prayers said over people or objects, such as the water at a baptism or a newly-married couple at their wedding.
  23. Calendar
    An arrangement of days within the church year in order to commemorate certain events in the life of Jesus, the apostles, or the history of Christianity.
  24. Call to Worship
    An exhortation to the congregation stating that the purpose of the gathering is to worship God and the response of the congregation that it is ready and willing to do so. Can also include a statement of God's worthiness to be worshiped. (In other words, it is not a prayer to God.)
  25. Canon
    Can refer variously to (1) the authoritative list of the books of the Bible, developed in the middle of the 3rd century; (2) the central prayer of the Eucharist (see also Great Thanksgiving); (3) canon law, which is the body of legislation by which a church is governed; (4) persons who live by the rules of the organization which supports them, especially applied today to refer to the canons of particular cathedrals.
  26. Canticle
    One of the various short hymns or songs either from the Old or New Testament or from the early centuries of the church. Examples are the Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55), the Benedictus (or "Song of Zechariah," Luke 1:68-79), the Nunc Dimitis (or "Song of Simeon," Luke 2:29-32), and the Song of Moses (Exod. 15:1-18).
  27. Cassock
    A floor-length tunic, usually black, sometimes worn by the participants (both clergy and laity) in a service of public worship. A common vestment for a member of a choir.
  28. Catechesis
    From the Greek word meaning "instruction," catechesis is instruction in the Christian faith, especially the instruction of new converts.
  29. Celebrant
    See presider.
  30. Chalice
    The cup that holds the Communion wine at a celebration of the Lord's Supper. See also paten.
  31. Chasuble
    A large sleeveless garment with a center opening for the wearer's head. The chasuble is traditionally worn only by the presider at the Lord's Supper.
  32. Choir
    The group of singers who take part in a service of Christian worship. Also, the section of the church building in which these singers sit.
  33. Christmas
    The day in the church year which celebrates the birth of Jesus. Also called the "Feast of the Incarnation."
  34. Church Year
    The church year (or Christian year) is composed of festivals and commemorations which highlight the various aspects of the gospel and the Christian life.
  35. Churching of Women
    See Thanksgiving for the Birth or Adoption of a Child.
  36. Collect
    Sometimes called the "Prayer of the Day," although the collect follows a particular structure, and the "Prayer of the Day" can be freer in its form. The collect is the prayer which highlights some aspect of the lessons for the day, or the time in the church year. It begins with an ascription (God or some aspect of the working of God is addressed), followed by an attribution (a statement of what God has done in the past), then a petition (asking God to act again as God has acted in the past), a purpose clause (a reason why the action of God is needed), and a doxology (usually Trinitarian in shape, this is a declaration that the prayer is made to the Father through the Son in the power of the Holy Spirit).
  37. Colors (liturgical)
    Traditionally, the different seasons and days of the church year are distinguished by particular colors for the vestments and other elements of liturgical furnishing. Usually these are purple (or more commonly now unbleached rough cloth) for penitential seasons and days (e.g. Ash Wednesday, Lent, Advent, Good Friday), red for seasons and days associated with the Holy Spirit (Pentecost, ordination, and commemorations of the saints and martyrs), white for festival celebrations of Jesus Christ (Christmas and Easter) and green for ordinary Sundays, especially the summer Sundays after Pentecost.
  38. Comfortable words
    The passages of Scripture (Matt. 11:28, John 3:16, 1 Tim. 1:15, and 1 John 2:1-2) which are used as words of assurance of pardon in the absolution. See also absolution.
  39. Committal
    The service at the graveside in the burial of the dead in which we commit the body of the departed to the mercies of God.
  40. Communion
    Used as a synonym for Lord's Supper or the Eucharist, the term Communion technically refers to the receiving and consumption of the eucharistic bread and wine.
  41. Communion Table
    See Altar-table.
  42. Confession (of sin)
    A prayer to God which acknowledges that we have failed to be the people God wants us to be, that, in the language of one of the oldest prayers in English, "we have erred and strayed from your ways like lost sheep," have "followed too much the devices and desires of our own hearts," and "have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, and deed." The prayer goes on to ask for God's forgiveness (see also absolution). Note: "Confession" is also used in the phrase "Confession of Faith" which is an alternative term for a creed or affirmation of faith.
  43. Confirmation
    Originally an integral part of the rite of Christian initiation, now the first public reaffirmation of baptismal vows for those who were baptized as infants.
  44. Covenant Service
    Commended by John Wesley for the Methodist societies, the covenant service became an annual service of solemn rededication and commitment.
  45. Credo
    See creed.
  46. Creed
    A corporate affirmation of faith used in a service of Christian worship. The two historic creeds used in worship are the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. The word derives from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe."
  47. Daily Office
    Traditionally, the daily services of morning and evening prayer, but also includes noontime prayer and night prayers (called "compline"). The word "office" comes from the Latin word for "duty" or "service."
  48. Deacon
    The form of ordained ministry which represents the Christian vocation to service.
  49. Dies irae
    The hymn which was a part of the medieval rite for the burial of the dead and which describes the "Day of Wrath" or final judgment.
  50. Doxology
    A hymn of praise, usually to the Trinity, which is used to conclude a prayer, psalm, or hymn.
  51. East (liturgical)
    Since ancient times, many church buildings were situated so that when the congregation faced the altar-table it was facing geographical east, acknowledging Christ, who is the Sun of Righteousness. Today liturgical east is the end of the church in which the altar table is placed, regardless of the actual geographical direction.
  52. Easter Day
    The Sunday which celebrates the resurrection. The date of Easter is calculated as the first Sunday after the first full moon that falls on or after the Spring equinox (March 21).
  53. Easter Vigil
    • aka "The Great Vigil of Easter"
    • The first service of Easter which is celebrated sometime between sunset on Saturday and sunrise on Sunday morning. It usually consists of the lighting of the paschal candle, a series of readings (from two to nine) which take the congregation through the events of salvation history, Christian initiation or a renewal of baptismal vows, and a celebration of the Lord's Supper.
  54. Elder
    See presbyter.
  55. Elements
    Another term for the bread and wine used at the Lord's Supper.
  56. Epiclesis
    From the Greek word meaning "invocation," the epiclesis is a calling down of the Holy Spirit upon an object or action in Christian worship. In the Lord's Supper it specifically refers to the section of the Great Thanksgiving that asks for the Holy Spirit to come upon the celebration of Communion to infuse it with power and fruitfulness.
  57. Epiphany
    The celebration of the church year which commemorates the various forms by which Jesus of Nazareth was manifested as the Christ. This manifestation includes both the visit of the magi and the first miracles of Jesus.
  58. Epistle
    The reading in a service of Christian worship from the New Testament letters, the book of Acts, or the book of Revelation.
  59. Eucharist
    From the Greek word for "thanksgiving," the Eucharist refers to the combined service of Word and Table which makes up the celebration of the Lord's Supper.
  60. Eucharistic prayer
    See Great Thanksgiving.
  61. Excommunication
    The barring from communion of those who have committed serious sin. Refers not only to a prohibition from partaking of the Lord's Supper, but also from continued fellowship (communion) with the community of believers more generally.
  62. Exhortation
    An address to the congregation to declare the purpose for gathering or to encourage the action of devotion of the congregation.
  63. Extempore prayer
    Spontaneous, unwritten prayer, composed for a particular occasion by the one who prays it.
  64. Font
    The container in which the water for baptism is held. Depending on the mode of baptism (sprinkling, dipping, or full submersion), it can be anything from a small basin to a large tank or pool.
  65. Footwashing
    A liturgical rite commemorating Jesus' action at the Last Supper when he washed the feet of his disciples as a sign of his servant ministry. Usually takes place as a counterpart of the Lord's Supper held on Maundy Thursday.
  66. Fraction
    The breaking of the bread for distribution at the Lord's Supper.
  67. Frontal
    A cloth or tapestry which covers the altar for a celebration of the Lord's Supper. Usually the altar frontal is in the liturgical color of the day or season.
  68. Gloria in Excelsis
    Also called the "Great Doxology" and extended hymn of praise to the Trinity. Beginning with the words "Glory to God in the Highest and peace to God's people on earth" (or in the older form: "Glory be to God on High and in earth, peace, good will to men"), the Gloria is said or sung as the congregation's hymn of praise before the proclamation of the Word.
  69. Gloria Patri
    A Trinitarian doxology: "Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit; As it was in the beginning, is now, and shall be forever, world without end, Amen." Traditionally said after the recitation of a psalm or a canticle.
  70. Godparents
    The sponsors of candidates for baptism.
  71. Good Friday
    The service which commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus on the Friday before Easter. Usually consists of the reading of the passion narrative in the presence of a replica of the cross.
  72. Gospel
    The reading in a service of Christian worship of a portion of the four Gospels.
  73. Gradual
    Any piece of music (usually a congregational hymn or psalm) sung just  before the Gospel lesson. From the Latin word gradus meaning "step," this was sung as the procession with the Gospel book was coming down the steps from the chancel to the main body of the church where the Gospel was traditionally read.
  74. Great Fifty Days
    The fifty days from Easter Day to Pentecost.
  75. Great Thanksgiving
    (Also called the "Eucharistic Prayer," the "Canon," or the "Anaphora"; and sometimes, erroneously, the "Prayer of Consecration.") The central prayer of the Lord's Supper. Not to be confused with a "Communion Meditation," or with the "Words of Institution" (or "Warrant") which are usually an integral part of the Great Thanksgiving.
  76. Great Vigil of Easter
    See Easter Vigil.
  77. Greeting
    This is a formal expression of mutual recognition, in the name of Jesus Christ, between congregation and presider, such as: Presider: "The Lord be with you!" Congregation: "And also with you." (In other words, "Good Morning!" is not a liturgical greeting.)
  78. Holy Saturday
    The day before Easter Day. The Easter Vigil can be held any time from sundown on Holy Saturday to sunrise on Easter Day.
  79. Holy Week
    The week from Palm Sunday to Easter Day which is the final week of Lent.
  80. Homily
    See Sermon.
  81. Host
    The wafers of unleavened bread used in some celebrations of the Lord's Supper. The word "host" comes from the Latin word for "sacrificial victim," highlighting the identification of the Communion bread with the sacrifice of Christ.
  82. Hymn
    A piece of religious poetry, usually set to music for singing in a service of religious worship.
  83. Intercessory prayers
    Liturgical prayers for the needs of the church and the world. Also called the "Prayers of the People." These are often in the form of a dialogue between a leader and the congregation (see also Litany).
  84. Initiation, Christian
    The composite process of the making of a Christian, including water baptism, the laying-on-of-hands with a prayer for the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and the celebration of Communion. See also Baptism, Confirmation.
  85. Institution Narrative
    The section of the Great Thanksgiving which recalls the events of the Last Supper. It is usually composed of various elements from the accounts in the Synoptic Gospels and 1 Corinthians.
  86. Intinction
    The practice of dipping eucharistic bread into the chalice of wine so that both elements of the Communion can be received at once.
  87. Invitation
    An exhortation to respond to the proclamation of the Word with renewed dedication or a commitment to discipleship.
  88. Kiss of Peace
    See Peace.
  89. Kyrie eleison
    From the Greek words "Lord Have Mercy," the Kyrie eleison is a repeated response which forms part of the prayers or litany of confession or intercession.
  90. Laying-on-of-hands
    The placing of the hands on a person's head as a sign of spiritual power. Used in services of healing, initiation, reconciliation, and ordination.
  91. Lectern
    The piece of liturgical furniture from which the Scriptures are read in public worship. Increasingly seen as redundant in the presence of a pulpit.
  92. Lection(s)
    The portions of Scripture read in the service. Traditionally the lessons set the theme for the service as a whole and come as close to the sermon as possible so that the reading and preaching of the Word is seen to be a unity. See also sermon.
  93. Lectio continua
    A mode of liturgical Scripture reading in which parts of the Bible are read in course during successive Sundays, rather than the reading of selected pericopes. Often a particular book of the Bible is read from beginning to end, chapter by chapter on each Sunday.
  94. Lectionary
    The arrangement of readings for the various Sundays and other occasions of Christian worship.
  95. Lent
    The forty days (excluding Sundays) before Easter. Originally a time of preparation for baptism and the reconciliation of penitents, later a time of fasting and penitence for all Christians in anticipation of the Easter feast.
  96. Litany
    A responsive reading (or singing) between a congregation and leader. Often used as the form for an intercessory prayer, but can be used for other prayers and readings as a method for the congregation to participate and "own" the prayer or reading. The leader begins with the versicle, which is followed by the congregation's response. Sometimes the response is invariable (e.g. "Lord, have mercy" or "Hear our prayer") and the leader elicits the response with an invariable "cue."
  97. Liturgical east
    See East (liturgical).
  98. Liturgy
    From the Greek words meaning "a public work," the term liturgy refers to a pattern for Christian public prayer.
  99. Lord's Prayer
    The prayer which Jesus taught his disciples as recorded in Matthew 6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4.
  100. Love Feast
    See agape.
  101. Lugubria
    The red or black garments worn by mourners in ancient Rome.
  102. Magnificat or "Song of Mary"
    A canticle, taken from Luyke 1:46-55, traditionally used at Evening Prayer.
  103. Maundy Thursday
    The Thursday of Holy Week which commemorates the Last Supper and the inauguration of the Eucharist. The word "maundy" comes form the Latin word for "commandment" which refers to Jesus' command in John 13:34 that we should "love one another."
  104. Metrical psalms
    • Versified versions of the psalms, arranged in regular lines for setting to music. For example, the opening verse of this metrical version of Psalm 23:
    • The Lord's my Shepherd, I'll not want
    • he makes me down to lie
    • in pastures green; he leadeth
    • me the quiet waters by.
  105. Mitre
    The traditional headgear worn by a bishop in the Western Christian church.
  106. Mystagogical catechesis
    A series of instructional sermons given by the bishop to new converts to the faith in the fourth and fifth centuries.
  107. Narthex
    The entry or vestibule of a church building.
  108. Nave
    The main body of a church building, the gathering space for the congregation.
  109. Nicene Creed
    • aka the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed
    • The profession of faith creed devised by the Ecumenical Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople (325 and 381 respectively) and used in public worship on Sundays and other festivals of the church year.
  110. Nunc Dimittis
    Also called the "Song of Simeon," a canticle form Luke 2:29-32 which is traditionally used at services of Evening Prayer.
  111. Nuptial blessing
    The central prayer of blessing over the couple in a marriage service.
  112. Offertory
    Those prayers and actions by which the congregation symbolizes its self-offering to God. Usually the combination of a collection of money and a prayer along with (in services of Holy Communion) the offering of bread and wine for use in the Lord's Supper. Also used to describe the hymn or anthem sung during the offertory.
  113. Office
    See Daily Office.
  114. Opening Sentence
    A sentence from Scripture at the very beginning of the service. Usually the Opening Sentence is from one of the lessons used as readings for the service, and serves to set the theme for the service. Can be recited as a verse and congregational response.
  115. Ordinary
    The invariable parts of a service of Christian worship, such as the Lord's Prayer and the Creed.
  116. Ordination
    The setting apart of those who will serve as public professional ministers for the church by a service of prayer and the laying on of hands.
  117. Pall
    A cloth covering for a coffin, often decorated with Christian symbols.
  118. Palm Sunday
    • aka called Palm/Passion Sunday
    • The Sunday before Easter which commemorates both the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem before his crucifixion and the passion of Jesus on the cross.
  119. Paschal
    Pertaining to Easter, from the Greek word pascha, which was a reworking of the Hebrew word for the Passover.
  120. Paschal candle
    The large candle that is lit on Easter Day (or during the Great Vigil of Easter) as a symbol of the light of Christ. Traditionally, it burns at each Sunday gathering until the Day of Pentecost, and thereafter stands by the font and is lit for baptisms.
  121. Pastoral Prayer
    A prayer (usually) by the presider, which functions to gather the prayers of the congregation. Usually comprised of elements of thanksgiving, confession, petition, and intercession.
  122. Paten
    The plate on which the bread to be used in the Lord's Supper is placed.
  123. Peace or Kiss of Peace
    (sometimes also called the "Pax," or the "Passing of the Peace"). A gesture of reconciliation shared among members of the congregation. As a liturgical greeting, it probably began as a true kiss (it is widely agreed that the exhortations in many of the Epistles to "greet one another with a holy kiss" refer to this liturgical practice - see e.g. 1 Peter 5:14 and 2 Corinthians 13:12), but most often today a handshake or embrace has replaced the kiss. This is not an expression of sociability or friendship, but a symbolic enactment of the Lord's command in Matthew 5:23ff. The Peace is usually exchanged just before the Lord's Supper, signifying reconciliation and unity in Christ.
  124. Penance
    See reconciliation.
  125. Pentecost
    The festival which takes place fifty days after Easter Day and commemorates the disciples' experience of receiving the Holy Spirit recorded in the book of Acts.
  126. Pericope
    A section of Scripture read in public worship from the Greek word meaning "to cut around."
  127. Petition
    A form of prayer which asks God to act in a particular situation.
  128. Pew
    A type of congregational seating, usually in the form of a long bench with arms and a solid back. Pews were not introduced into churches until the late thirteenth century.
  129. Prayer of Illumination
    A prayer which asks for the grace to hear and respond to the Word of God in the service.
  130. Prayers of the People
    See intercessory prayers.
  131. Preaching gown
    A vestment sometimes worn by the person leading a service of public worship, and especially by those who expound the Word of God.
  132. Prelude and Postlude
    Pieces of music (either choral or instrumental) which precede and follow the main body of the service.
  133. Presbyter
    A form of ordained ministry, sometimes translated "elder," "priest," or "minister."
  134. Presider
    The person who oversees the proceedings in a service of public worship. (From the Latin word meaning "to sit in front of.")
  135. Propers
    • The variable parts of a service of Christian worship, such as the lessons of the day and the collect (see also ordinary).
  136. Psalter
    The collection of psalms which are appointed to be read in services of Christian worship.
  137. Pulpit
    The piece of liturgical furniture from which the Scriptures are read and the sermon preached. Occasionally other parts of the service are led from the pulpit as well. In ancient churches the place of proclamation of the Word was called the "ambo," and this term has gained currency among students of Christian worship.
  138. Reconciliation
    A type of worship service which is focused on the public restoration of a penitent person to full fellowship with the Christian community. Also called "penance."
  139. Rubrics
    The directions for the conduct of public worship. The term rubric comes from the Latin word for "red," since the ceremonial directions were always printed in red ink to distinguish them from the texts of prayers and other spoken parts of the service.
  140. Sabbath
    The seventh day of the week (Saturday), appointed as a day of rest in the Ten Commandments.Sanctoral cycle
  141. Sanctoral cycle
    The calendar of the commemorations of the saints, heroes, and martyrs of the faith. Traditionally the festival of a particular person was celebrated on the day of his or her death.
  142. Sanctus and Benedictus
    The hymn which combines acclamations found in Isaiah 6:3 and Luke 1:68-79. Traditionally a part of the Great Thanksgiving said by the whole congregation.
  143. Sermon
    • aka the "Homily" or "Message"
    • The proclamation of the Word of God in the context of Christian public worship.
  144. Song of Mary
    See Magnificat.
  145. Song of Simeon
    See Nunc Dimittis.
  146. Stole
    A badge of office for ordained ministers consisting of a narrow strip of clothe, usually corresponding in color to the liturgical color of the day or season. For the presbyter the stole hangs across the back of the neck with the two ends down the front; for the deacon it is worn diagonally over the left shoulder and under the right arm.
  147. Thanksgiving for the Birth or Adoption of a Child
    The contemporary rite which often replaces the old service of the Churching of Women, or gives liturgical expression to thanksgiving for a child when a baptism is in appropriate or delayed.
  148. Trinity Sunday
    Traditionally, the Sunday after Pentecost, when the theology of the Trinity is given special attention in the propers. Traditionally, the Athanasian Creed was appointed to be said on this day, but this practice is largely obsolete.
  149. Unctio in extremis
    Anointing with oil at the time of death.
  150. Vernacular
    The ordinary language spoken in a particular place.
  151. Versicle and Response
    The parts of a liturgical dialogue, usually between the presider (who says the versicle) and the congregation (which makes the response).
  152. Vestments
    Special garments worn by the various participants in a service of Christian worship. The most usual of these are the alb, the cassock, the stole, the chasuble, and the preaching gown.
  153. Viaticum
    Meaning "that which goes with you on your way," the final reception of Communion for a person before death.
  154. Vigil
    A service which is held during the night before a feast day.
  155. Voluntary
    Another term for the organ prelude and postlude.
  156. Watchnight Service
    A type of vigil held monthly at the full moon by the early Methodists. Later it came to be the service for New Year's Eve.
  157. Whitsunday
    See Pentecost.
  158. Words of Institution
    See Institution Narrative.

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