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concerned with molding shapes in three-dimensional forms
- molten metals poured into molds to create cast-bronze figures
- ex. ancient greek statues of warriors
- equestrian monuments of the Italian Renaissance
- Auguste Rodin's Thinker
- Frederic Bartholdi's statue of Liberty
from wood, stone, marble, clay, or in the twentieth century welded together from metal pieces
- two-dimensional means of re-creating reality or arranging abstract forms in color on a flat surface
- applied with a brush, using pigments, watercolor, oil, tempura, and acrylic
- two-dimensional art in color or black and white
- with graphite pencil, ink applied by pen or brush, and chalk or crayons
in etching, woodcuts, lithographs, and the many variations on these methods, multiple copies of a drawing are made by creating either a raised or recessed surface that takes ink and pressing paper against the surface
the conscious organization of space and form to provide a structure for living, working, worshiping, or for other residential needs
soar to the heavens with massive vertical elements to reflect the religious devotion of medieval Europe
- based on physical movement and expression.
- Folk or tribal dancing are often related to communal celebration or religious ritual
- the arrangement of sounds for voice and musical instruments
- linked to story-telling or poetry
- an outgrowth of a community's need to celebrate
- The performance for the sake of an audience's education or entertainment
- Usually of drama, comed, or combo.
- reached it's highest point in the late 16th and early 17th centuries w/ shakespeare
- vocal declamation
- scenic backdrop or constructed set
- poetic expression
Reaissance artists see _____ as the center of the universe
Twentieth-century drama may emphasize _________
psychological portraits of individuals and realistic dialogue
Japanese Noh plays
- originated in 15th century
- derive from Zen Buddhism
- five plays separated by three comic interludes are marked by stylized acting, masks, mime, and folk dance
Chinese tonal scales
prefer the pentatonic scale of five notes
West tonal scales
primarily used a scale of seven notes (eight with the repeated first note for an octive)
Indian musical pieces
- built upon ragas (mood or color)
- - feature repetitive patterns and use scales whose octaves have twenty-two intervals or steps
- the measure of the prevailing philosophy of an age
- - they sought to express their rediscovery of ancient humanism and the search for knowledge, as well as their newfound joy in earthly life and beauty, through the application of perfect proportions, the use of classical engineering techniques, and by perfecting the art of dome construction.
Artists of Sumer, babylon, and Assyria
-skilled in carving the hardest rocks, such as granite and basalt, into narratives of battles and historical records.
The palace of Knossos
known for characteristic wall paintings revealing a people enamored of games, leisure, and the beauty of the sea.
The mainland Greeks
- fascinated by physical beauty
- - Their Olympian gods were fashioned in the human image, and a universe of perfection, guided by a master plan, was recreated in their idealized and gracefully proportioned sculptures, architecture and paintings.
Culture of Rome
- -excelled in engineering and building
- - built temples, roads, bath complexes, civic buildings, palaces, and aqueducts.
- - one of the greatest accomplishments was the massive-domed temple of all the gods, the Pantheon, which today is one of the most perfectly preserved of all classical-period buildings
The early Christian Era
-borrowed the basilica form of Roman architecture for its churches, particularly evident in churches in the town of Ravenna in italy.
The Romanesque style of art
- -Preeminent from 800 to 1200.
- - churches had round arches, vaulted ceilings, and heavy walls that were ornately decorated, primarily with symbolic figures of christianity the realism of which had become less and less important as they were subordinated to the message.
Cathedrals were constructed using elements such as flying buttresses and pointed arches and vaults, and were decorated by a profusion of sculptures and stained-glass windows that were visual encyclopedias of Christian teachings and stories
- roots were found as early as the 1300's
- - the painter Giotto began to compose his figures into groups and depict expressive human gestures.
- - developed new forms and revived classical styles and values, with the belief in the importance of human experience on Earth.
created the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistry
produced Gattamelata, the first equestrian statue since the roman era
Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti
- revived the Greek elements and took a scientific, ordered approach, one similarly expressed in painting, with the emphasis on the calculated composition of figures in space known as perspective.
- - they sought to produce works of perfect beauty and engaged in a constant search for knowledge, most often portraying religious subjects and wealthy patrons.
Art become more emotional and dramatic, color and movement were heightened, compositions were more vigorous, and there were increased references to classical iconography
- created the Sistine Chapel
- - sculptures of David
Northern European Renaissance
- emphasized a renewed interest in the visible world
- - reveal an emphasis on the symbolism of minutely observed details and accurate realism based on observation of reality rather than prescribed rules
- -produced artists who added heightened drama to the forms of Renaissance Art.
- - portrayed figures in constant motion, draperies of agitated angles, and effects of lighting and shadow that amplified emotional impact and mystery
- -used expressive brushwork and mysterious light contrasts to enliven genre painting and portaiture, particularly of groups.
- - his art appears to impart universal truths and sections of his compositions glow with a mysterious inner light often unrelated to realistic effects.
the art of the early eighteenth century for decorative wall and ceiling schemes, turned the agitated drama of the baroque into light, pastel-toned, swirling compositions that seem placed in an idyllic land of a golden age.
17th and 18th century
European artists responded to middle-class life and everyday objects and created genre paintings
endowed their everyday subjects with a wealth of narrative detail that aimed to impart a specific moral message.
used a severe classical sculptural style in his paintings to revive classical art and ennoble images of the French Revolution and Napolean's empire
revived the aloof severity and perfection of form of ancient art, a style also reflected in Thomas Jefferson's architectural designs for his Monticello home and the University of Virginia
Francisco de Goya
commented powerfully on political events in his painting May3, 1808.
Eugene Delacroiz and Theodore Gericault
imbued subjects from literature, the bible, exotic lands, and current events with dramatic and heroic intensity
- landscape painting in England reached a zenith with the works of Constable and Turner
- - focused on the reporterlike depiction of everyday life and the natural environment in a free, painterly style
awe inspiring landscapes from a bridge between the spirit of romanticism and the expressionistic brushwork and realism of the Barbizon School in France
the realist pioneers were
- Gustave Courbet
- Jean-Francois Millet
- Honore Daumier
Renowned as a political caricaturist, his chief medium was the lithograph and paved the way for the stylistic and subject innovations of the impressionists.
traditional means of composing a picture, academic methods of figure modeling, of color relations, and accurate and exact rendering of people and objects were rejected in favor of an art that emphasized quickly observed and sketched moments from life, the relation of shapes and forms and colors, the effects of light, and the act of painting itself.
French artists began to blur the boundaries of realism and abstraction, and the landscapes and everyday life paintings gave way to the more experimental arrangements of form and color of the great postimpressionists
produced powerful sculptures with the freedom of impressionist style
Cubism seemed the most direct call for the total destruction of realistic depiction, his use of African and Oceanic tribal art, and his emphasis on taking objects apart and reassembling them, thus showing a subject's multiplicity of aspects and dissolving time and space
with little or no relation to the outside world was approached in the more emotional, expressionistic, and color-oriented paintings
Frank Lloyd Wright
- the pioneer giant of the 20th century
- - rejection of eclectic decorative styles of the previous century's architecture and use of new engineering techniques paralleled the Bauhaus aesthetic.
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