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North China Plain
- -large alluvial(sediments) plain of northern China
- -along the Yellow River
- -high population density
- -the soil super rich
- -where China grew from
- -Eastern CHina
- -Isolated pockets of dense population
- -Qinling mountains:
- -Home to 3/5 of India's population
- -has some of the most fertile soil in the world
- 1. Lies between the Indus River (west) and the Ganges River (east).
- 2. Many people live around the rivers and work as substinence farmers.
- 3. The rivers carry water and silt into the farmlands to enrich and irrigate the land.
- 4. Floods during monsoon season
Most populous country in Africa
- -way of life
- -group of people share
- 1. Religion
- 2. Tradition
- 3. Food
- 4. Language
- 5. Festivals/holidays
- 6. knowledge, beliefs, practices,abilties
- -must all be learned
Carrier of culture
- -use to teach religion
English is not defined by the way we________
- something you can observe with a meaning
- Ex. Cup
use of signs and interpretation of signs
Symbol meaning is determined by
agreed by convention
system for meaning by arrangement of symbols
- -the sound you think you're saying
- -the smallest unit of sound that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning.
- -Ex. In English we can tell that pail and tail are different words, so /p/ and /t/ are phonemes
- -smallest unit of meaning
- - For example, the word "bookkeeper" has three morphemes: "book", "keep", and "-er".
- -Ex. the word Cups has two morphemes: "cup","s"
- -understandable by a lot of people
- -grammar rules
- -taught in schools
Dialect of government
spread of a particular speech
- -language of franks
- -any common language spoken by two groups who speak different languages
- -New dialect created that contains elements of both groups
- -generally the less powerful group do most grammar and sound
- -powerful group does vocabulary
- -acquired pidgin
- -children grow up speaking it
- -evolves to the point that it becomes the primary language to the people who speak it.
move back and forth from creole to standard(formal situations)
switching back and forth between two different dialects based on situation
- two language group understand each other
- -used as a distinction
- -matter of degree
- -Ex. California English vs Midwest english
- There is no clear break in intelligibility between dialects in a country, so they change gradually from place to place
- -extremes might not be able to understand each other
- -innovation can reach entire distance
- -the greater the geographical separation, the greater the difficulty of comprehension
How do languages divert?
- 1. Migration-----separation
- 2. Change