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English was originally a dialect of
- Wessex, not London
- -it is a Germanic dialect
West/Northwest European dialect
Scottish/ Irish Gaelic
- -a dialect of Germanic
- -closely related to standard english
- -different from Scottish Gaelic
German/Dutch dialect Continuum
- -Two main standard dialects, one German, one Dutch, however from Austria to the Netherlands, there is never a loss in intelligibility. Thus, a dialect continuum.
- -High German vs Low (Down by the sea) German
Standard High German originated in
German and English are part of what language family?
What led to lots of French words borrowed into English?
Invasion of the Normans
- -German, French, Italian, Romanish
- -German speakers are the most populous
- - More closely related to English than other related groups, but less related than German or Dutch
- - includes Sweden, Norway, Denmark
- - Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish are all mutually intelligible
- - Mainland Scandinavia is pretty much one linguistic region
- - Originated with Latin, originating in the area around Rome, spread throughout a great part of Europe.
- -One giant continuum: Spain, France, Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Romania
- -A lot of Western Europe is under the Romance dialect continuum.
- - Standard French is probably the most distant from the other Romance languages
- - However in the Iberian peninsula, the continuum exists in the North
New World Continuum?
- - In the New World, there actually is no continuum
- - In the New World, there were only the Standard Dialects brought over, from Portugal and from Spain
- - Thus not a continuum in South America (Brazil vs. rest of South America)
- - However, two dialects are spoken side by side
- 1. Catalan not really related to Spanish (although a part of Spain)
- 2. Galecian (northwest Spain, pretty much Portuguese)
- 3. Basque (to the north), not an Indo-European language, probably a language isolate
- 4. Castillan (the standard dialect of Spanish)
- French in the North, Occitan in the South
- - also spoken in Canada
- - French Creole is commonly spoken in the French Caribbean
- - All the creole in the Caribbean is mutually intelligible
- - There is a lot of French in the world, but also a lot of West Africa
- - The territories in West Africa ruled by France/Belgium also speak French
- -Indo-Aryan or Indic continuum in India
- -Bulk of India’s population lives in the Indo-Gangetic plain, most fertile part of India, home of India’s cultural history/political power.
- -Even so, the entire area is one linguistic region.
- - In the East, the standard dialect is Bengali (Bangladesh)
- -Bengal as a cultural region is divided, West Bengal (Hindu Majority) part of India, and Bangladesh (Muslim Majority) as it’s own Country
- - Indian state is dominated by Indo-Aryan speakers
Sri Lanka dialects
- - has two main dialects
- 1. Sinhalese
- 2. Tamil
- -Tamil Tigers rebel group vs Sinhalese majority government
- -Very closely related to Indic or Indo-Aryan
- - distinct group within Indo-European
- - in terms of territory, Persian is the largest group (Persian language)
- - Persian is from Parse
- - In Afghanistan, they speak Pashto, a dialect of Persian
- - In Tadjikistan, there is political support for Persians in Tadjkikistan, and Iran, but none in between, although Persian is spoken as a native dialect
- - Kurd is the other Iranian dialect
- - Kurds have been called the largest group in the world without their own state
- - Never had a recognized state in the modern era
- - However, Iraqi Kurdistan is very autonomous (although a part of Iraq), and the Kurds were effectively independent
- -Pashtum people
- -Territory of Pashtunistan
- - Afghanistan is a territory where the Pashtum have a lot of political power, Pashto is promoted.
- - Northwest of Pakistan has a lot of Pashto speakers, although still a part of Pakistan
- -there is a province in Pakistan called Baluchistan, there’s a province in with Baluchi speakers, also in Afghanistan
- - related to the Kurds, Persians, Pashto
- - One large dialect continuum in Russia
- - Polish, Czech, Slovak in the West (West Slovak Dialects)
- - Russian, Belarussin, Ukrainian (East Slovak Dialects)
Yugoslavia (South Slav)
Difference/similarity of Serbs, Croat, Bosniak
- -Serb, Croat, Bosniak, all essentially racially identical, linguistically identical
- -but RELIGIOUSLY different.Bosnians are MUSLIM. Croats are CATHOLIC, Serbs are EASTERN ORTHODOX