APR Cards - Chapters 1&2 Intro & Practioners
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What is public relations?
Public relations is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.
How does public relations earn public uderstanding and acceptance?
By forming, building and maintaining relationships between your organization and the public - finding common interests. Failures usually stem from communication breakdowns.
What is the social significance of the practice of public relations?
American business gave birth to public relations as it is practiced today. Growth and trends in business created the conditions for the public relations profession to develop.
What are the 11 functions of public relations?
- Competencies:1. Trusted counsel - advise and anticipate
- 2. Internal communication - engage employees and build trust
- 3. Media relations - public trust and support
- 4. Community relations - public trust and support
- 5. External communication to customers/stakeholders/investors, etc. - public trust and support
- Public relations process:6. Research and strategize
- 7. Plan and implement/execute
- 8. Evaluate
- Other:9. Publicity and special events
- 10. Issues management
- 11. Crisis communication
Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for time or space. It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media.
A product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that is can be easily communicated and, usually, marketed. A brand name is the name of a distinguished product, service or concept.
The process of creating and/or disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.
How did public relations take early form in 1900s?
Powerful business interests in 1900s employed public relations to defend themselves and their monopolies against muckraking journalists and government agencies.
Define Community Relations:
An area of public relations
Define Community Relations:
An area of public relations with responsibilities for building relationships with consistent publics such as shools, charities, clubs and activist interests of the neighborhoods or metropolitan areas where an organization operates. Dealing and commicating with the citizens and groups within an organization's operating area.
Advising management concerning policies and communications.
Define Crisis Communications:
Protects and defends an individual, company or organization facing a public challenge to it reputation. There challenges can involve leagal, ethical or financial standing.
Define Employee Relations:
Activities designed to build sound relationships between an organization and its employees, and a critical element in fostering positive attitudes and behaviors of employees as ambassadors for the organization.
Define Financial Relations:
An aspect of public relations responsibile for buildling relationships with the investor public, including shareholders/stockholders, potential investors, financial analysts, the financial markets such as the stock exchange commodities exchanges, and the Securities and Exchange Commission. Dealing and communicating with the shareholders of an organization and the investment community. Also know as investor relations or shareholder relations.
Define Government Relations:
As aspect of relationship building between an organization and government at local, state, and/or national levels, especially involving flow of information to and from legislative and regulatory bodies in an effort to influence public policy decisions compatible with an organization's interests. Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.
Define Grassroots Organizing
An activist practice for creating social change among average people. Grassroots organizing is based on the power of people to take collective action on their own behalf. This public relations techinique is often used to sway public opinion and move legislators to action. Grasstops uses the same strategy, but with community influencers.
Define Issues Management:
The proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations and their publics now and in the future.
The specialized area of public relations that builds and maintains relations with a government or its official for the primary purpose of influencing legislation and regulation.
What was the influence of WWI and Woodrow Wilson on public relations?
- Wilson created the commitee on public information (headed by George Creel) staffed with young propogandists with a goal to unite public opinion behind the war effort through a propoganda campaign.
- During these years, PR took the form of publicty designed to influence others.
This person is one of the founders of PR and defined it as "inducing the public to have understanding for and goodwill (persuasion) in his book "The Engineering of Consent (1955)?
Progression of PR after WWII
more definitions focused on two-way communication...Webster's 3rd New Dictionary & Brittish Institute of PR considered it an "art or science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill."
Who is the Yale professor and founder of Public Opinion Quarterly who presented concepts of PR being used to "adjust" organizations to their environments?
Harwood L. Childs
What is Organizational Adjustment?
The outcome of PR that suggests a management-level, policy-influencing role and calls for corrective action and communication.
What are the elements of the official statement of PRSA on what PR does (adopted in 1982)?
- 1. Conducts a planned and sustained program as part of an organization's management.
- 2. Deals with relationships between organizations and their publics
- 3. Monitors awareness, opinions, attitudes, and behaviors inside and outside the organization
- 4. Analyzes the impact of policies, procedures, and actions on publics
- 5. Adjusts those policies, procedures, and actions found to be in conflict with the public interest and organizational survival.
- 6. Counsels management on the establishment of new policies, procedures and actions that are mutually beneficial to the organization and its publics
- 7. Establishes and maintains two-way communication between the organization and it publics
- 8. Produces specific changes in awareness, opinions, attitudes and behaviors inside and outside the organization
- 9. Results in new and/or maintained relationships between an organization and its publics.
What is two-way communication?
The communication exchange, reciprocity and mutual understanding, which leads to organizational adjustment, counseling management and taking corrective action.
What does marketing consist of?
A coordinated program or research, product design, packaging, pricing, promotion and distribution.
Information from an outside source that is used by the media because the information has news value. It is an uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media because the source does not pay the media for the placement.
Define Press Agentry:
Creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention and to gain public notice.
Define Staff Management:
Provides counsel and other sources to support line functions (public relations)
Define Line Management:
Function engaged in turning organization's inputs and outputs of values to others, which affects the bottom line.
Who is the single largest employer of public relations practioners?
Definition: An aspect of PR responsible for building relationships with the investor public, including shareholders/stockholders, potential investors, financial analysts; the financial markets such as the stock exchanges and commodities exchanges; and the Security and Exchange Commission. Dealing and communicating with the shareholders of am organization and the investment community. Also known as investor relations or shareholder relations.
Definition: An activist practice for creating social change among average people. Grassroots organizing is based on the power of the people to take collective action on their own behalf. This PR technique is often used to sway public opinion and move legislators to action. Grasstops uses the same strategy, but with community influencers.
Definition: An area of PR with the responsibilities for building relationships with constituent publics such as schools, charities, clubs and activist interests of the neighborhoods or metropolitan area(s) where an organization operates. Dealing and communicating with the citizens and groups within an organization's operating area.
Definition: A product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and, usually, marketed. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service or concept.
The process of creating and/or disseminating the brand name. Brading can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual products and service names.
Definition: Protects and defends an individual, company or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. These challenges can involce legal, sthical or financial standing.
Definition: The act of advising management concerning policies, relations and communications.
Definition: The act of relationship-building between an organization and government at local, state, and/or national levels, especially involving flow of information to/from legislative and regulatory bodies in an effort to influence public policy decisions compatible with the organization's interests. Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.
Definition: Creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention and gain public notice. Press agents attempt to attract public notice more than build public understanding and the notice does not have to be positive.
Definition: Activities designed to win publicity or attention, especially the staging of special events to generate media coverage. Special activities designed to create and stimulate interest in a person, product, organizaiton or cause.
What is Audeince Segmentation?
The breakdown of an audience into demographic, psychographics or other dimensions to adapt strategies, tactics and messages to audience need or interest.
What are the 8 PR Actitivties/Specialities
- 1. Publicity
- 2. Advertising
- 3. Press Agentry
- 4. Public Affairs
- 5. Issues Management
- 6. Lobbying
- 7. Investor Relations
- 8. Development
Definition: Response to crises and putting out fires defensively rather than initiating programs. There are varying degrees of reactive PR with some situations requiring implementation of an organization's crisis plan.
Reactive Public Relations
Definition: Mutually beneficial associations between publicists or PR professionals and members of media organizations as a condition for reaching audeinces with messages of news or feature of interest. Maintaining up-to-date lists of media people and a knowledge of media audience interests are crucial to the function. Dealing with the communication media in seeking publicity or responding to the interest in the organization.
Definition: Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for time or space. It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media.
Definition: The proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect an organization's relationships with their publics. 2 points that capture essence of IM: early identification of issues with potential impact on an organization and strategic response designed to mitigate or capitalize on their consequences.
Definition: Persuasion based on appeals rather than on the merits of a case. Often gives only one side of an argument, making it deceitful and not in public interest.
Definition: Relating with people in various cultural groups
Multicultura Relations/Workplace Diversity
Definition: Taking the initiative to develop and apply PR pland to achieve measurable reults toward set goals and objectives.
Proactive Public Relations
Definition: A combination of activities designed to sell a product, service or idea, including advertising, collateral materials, interactive communicaitons, publicity, promotion, direct mail, trade shows and special events.
What are the 7 types of Propaganda Devices?
- 1. Glittering generalities (broad statements)
- 2. Name calling (emotions)
- 3. Transfer (guilt by association)
- 4. Bandwagon (everybody's doing it)
- 5. Plain folks (anti-elitism)
- 6. Testimonials (if irrelevant)
- 7. Card stacking (one-sided)
Definition: Representation of a point of view in collected forms such as facts, news, messages, pictures or data; the process of disseminating such information to publics usually through mass media; a designation describing persons charged with the task os such dissemination usually on behalf of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, colleges or universities
Definition: A specialized area of PR that builds and maintains governmental and local community relations in order to influence public policy. PR practice that addresses public policy and the publics who influence such policy. Called Public Affairs because government not allowed to use publicity.
Stimulating an interest in a person, product or organization by means of a focused "happening." Activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them.
Specialized part of PR in private nonprofit organizations with donors and members for the purposes of securing financial and volunteer support. Rely heavily on annual campaigns and special events to call attention to needs and solicit public support and contributions
Mutually beneficial associations between publicists or PR professionals and memers of media organizations as a condition for reaching audeinces with messages of news or features of interest. Maintaining up-to-date lists of media people and a knowledge of media audience interests are critical to the function. Dealing with communication media in seeking publicity or responding to their interest in an organization.
Taking the initiative to develop and apply PR plans to acheive measurable results toward set goals and objectives.
Proactive Public Relations
Definition: Also known as a function of crisis communication. The increased used of the Internet and related social media has given added urgency to the practive, as the immediate and anonymous nature of the Web increases the risk of communications that can damage an organization's reputation. Online reputation management is a growing specialized segment of public relations
Definition: Media that are not under direct control of the company, organization or sender of message. These include newspapers, magazines, radio and television, external Websites, externally produced blogs and social media commentary and externally produced news stories.
Uncontrolled Communication Channels
Sometimes used to refer to investors, but includes others who have invested time, job seniority, commitment to the organization or are otherside dependent on an organzation in a sense other than fanancial. A person or group with a stake of interest.
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