eent

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Author:
cassiekay10
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230876
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eent
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2013-08-22 05:44:45
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eent
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eent
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  1. timinol eye drops
    • decr pressure in eyes
    • helps incr bld flow to retina
  2. antihistamines
    • sedative effects
    • cognitive impairment
    • drying
  3. strep
    drug of choice
    pcn,
  4. lidacaine
    make sure gag reflex is back b4 food
  5. normal intraocular pressure
    10-21 mmHg
  6. cataracts post op care
    • dont bend forward
    • cover both eyes
    • prevent cough/strain
    • help w pain meds
    • bed not in fowlers
  7. level for legal blindness
    20/200
  8. accommodation
    eyes adjust to see objects at dif distances
  9. chem splashed in eyes
    flush 15 mins
  10. snellen chart
    what does 20/20 mean
    can read at distance of 20 ft what a normal person can see at 20 feet
  11. how far stand away for snellen
    20 feet
  12. atropine eye drops
    photophobia, accom prob, dryness, irritates cornea
  13. presbyopia
    • decr ability to accomm 
    • hold newspaper away 
    • common in elderly
  14. vertigo safety
    • dizzy
    • encourage to ask for help to get out of bed
  15. miotics
    constrict
  16. nystagmus
    rapid eye twitch
  17. diplopia
    double vision
  18. irrigate
    inner to outer
  19. object imbedded in eye
    call dr, dont try to remove
  20. jauger chart tests
    near vision at 14 inches
  21. myringotomy
    incision into ear drum releases fluid from middle ear
  22. visual center
    occipital
  23. hearing center
    temporal
  24. hearing aids
    do not restore normal hearing
  25. debrox for ears
    wax softener
  26. diet menieres
    low na
  27. never
    give advice
  28. optician
    fills lenses
  29. optometrist
    tests refractive errors
  30. opthalmologist
    dr, diagnoses eye diseases can prescribe meds
  31. outpocketing of the brain
    delicate organ
  32. eyes are protected by 5
    • skull
    • lids/lashes
    • tears
    • sac
    • and conjunctiva
  33. sclera
    • white of eye
    • connective tiss
  34. choroid
    • conn tiss w bld vessels, highly vascular
    • dark brown pigment that prevents incoming light rays from scattering and reflecting off inner surface
  35. retina
    5
    • innermost layer; 10 sublayers of neurons
    • rods and cones photoreceptors
    • optic disk
    • macula
    • and fovea centralis
  36. rods
    • periphery
    • sensitive to light; dim light; black and white, night vision
  37. rhodopsin
    • in rods
    • chem helps rods function 
    • needs vit a
  38. cones
    • central vision
    • concentrated in center of retina
    • bright light; sensitive to color; sharp image; red, green, and blue
  39. rods and cones tested by
    electroretinogram erg
  40. optic disk
    • retina
    • blind spot
    • no rods or cones
  41. macula
    • yellow core in center
    • dark oval for central vision
    • contains fovea centralis
  42. fovea centralis
    • in mac in ret
    • depressed area; high concentration cones
    • point of most acute vision
  43. cornea 5
    • forward cont of sclera
    • transparent covering front of eye
    • avascular
    • rich nerve supply - corneal reflex
    • conjunctiva provides nutrients, antibodies, and protection
  44. aqueour humor 4
    • watery fluid produced by ciliary process
    • flows in eye, thru canal of schlemm, absorbed in general circulation
    • fills eyeball in front of lens ant cav
    • maintains forward curvature and nourishment of cornea, as well as iop
  45. lens/crystalline lens 4
    • clear circular structure behind iris
    • changes thickness to accommodate
    • changes shape to refract (bend) light rays onto retina for clear image
    • ciliary bd allows contraction and relaxation
  46. vitreous humor
    • soft, clear, jell substance fills space behind lens in post cav
    • keeps spherical shape of eyeball
    • pushes retina against choroid to maintain bld supply
    • cant be reproduced by bd; surg neccessary
  47. intrinsic eye muscles
    • iris
    • ciliary bd
    • and suspensory ligaments
  48. iris
    colored part
  49. ciliary bd
    muscle allows lens to change shape during accommodation
  50. suspensory ligaments
    hold lens in place
  51. extrinsic eye muscles
    • each eye has
    • 4 rectus muscles
    • and 2 oblique muscles
  52. test 9 cardinal fields of gaze
    star or h pattern
  53. sensory nerves eye
    • optic nerve cn2
    • trigeminal nerve opthalmic branch cn5
  54. optic nerve
    • cn2
    • carries visual impulses from rods and cones to brain
  55. trigeminal nerve: opthalmic branch
    • cn5
    • carries impulses of pain/touch/temp from eye to brain
  56. motor nerves eye
    • oculomotor nerve cn3
    • trochlear nerve cn4
    • abducens nerve cn6
    • voluntary and involuntary movement
  57. visual center in brain
    occipital lobe
  58. how do we see?
    • light travels through the 
    • 1. cornea
    • 2. aqueous humor
    • 3. pupil
    • 4. lens (bends light rays)
    • 5. vitreous humor
    • 6. focuses on retina (image inverted)
    • 7. optic nerve (image reversed l to r)
    • 8. occipital lobe
  59. eye irrigation 7
    • nss flush
    • inner canthus to outer
    • iv lr/nss and tubes
    • morgen lens
    • 2 nurses for both eyes
    • cover both eyes
    • flush 15 mins
  60. snellen chart
    distance/far vision
  61. jaeger chart
    • near vision
    • 14 inches
    • normal: 4 point type at 14 inches
  62. mydriatic/cycloplegic drops
    dilate pupils
  63. safety after dilation
    sunglasses, dd, assistance ambulating
  64. tonometry
    instrument to measure iop
  65. legally blind
    visual acuity less than 20/200 in better eye with/wo correction

    or visual field sight reduced to 20 degrees (normal 180)

    no light perception
  66. safety for visually impaired
    • walking tour
    • dont move items
    • position usable items close to bed
    • door open or closed
    • id self entering and leaving
    • approach strong site
    • speak before touching
  67. conjunctivitis
    caused by
    • bacteria
    • pinkeye staph
    • chlamydia
    • gonorrhea
    • virus
    • allergen
  68. s/s conjuctivitis
    redness, tearing, irritation, itching, drainage, photophobia
  69. emmetropia
    normal light focus
  70. myopia
    • most common refractive error
    • nearsightedness
    • horizontal elongation football
    • lght rays focus on vit humor before reaching retina
    • occurs in dm if lens swollen due to sugar
    • treat w concave lens
  71. hyperopia
    • farsightedness
    • eyeball short and elongated
    • light rays focus at pnt behind ret
    • treat w convex lens (pulls rays in)
  72. astigmatism
    • irregular/unequal curvature shape of cornea or lens, light doesnt focus correctly on retina
    • mult areas of focus
    • vision distorted or blurred
    • straight things appear slanted
    • occurs w my and hyper, not alone
  73. presbyopia 
    far vision
    • lens flattens (thins)
    • ciliary muscles relax
    • pupil dilates
  74. presbyopia
    near vision
    • lens rounds (thick)
    • ciliary muscles tighten
    • pupil constricts
  75. presbyopia
    ciliary muscle loses elasticity and is less able to accommodate

    • small print held away to see
    • need bifocals, trifocals, or reading glasses
  76. cataracts
    opague lens
  77. cataracts post op
    • position on unoperative side
    • dc within hours - teach
    • review med sched
    • activity restritions
    • shield until first fu and at night
    • dark glasses photophobia
    • shed fu
    • # to call w problems
    • eye is scratchy, mild pain
    • keep iop low
    • written instructions
    • later may need corrective lenses
    • report as implant in future
  78. normal iop
    10-21 mmHg
  79. glaucoma
    eye cond due to disturbance or normal balance bw production and drainage of aq humor 

    • sudden onset: medical emergency
    • pressure may rise to 50-70
  80. glaucoma s/s
    • severe pain 
    • blurred vision
    • halos
    • ns
    • steamy appearance of cornea
    • impairs peripheral vision first then tunnel vision then blindness
  81. dx glaucoma
    applanation tonometry
  82. tx glaucoma
    • stat to protect optic nerve
    • reduce iop

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