PSY 200 chapter 3 vocab

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bblair
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230893
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PSY 200 chapter 3 vocab
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2013-08-26 10:33:08
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PSY 200 chapter 3 terms
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  1. a neurotransmitter that plays multiple roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the excitation of muscle contractions
    acetylcholine
  2. the all-or-none electrical signal that travels down a neuron's axon
    action potential
  3. a trait that has been selected by nature because it increases the reproductive "fitness" of the organism.
    adaptation
  4. the collection of nerves that control the more automatic needs of the body (such as heart rate, digestion, blood pressure); part of the peripheral nervous system.
    autonomic system
  5. the long tail-like part of a neuron that serves as the cell's transmitter
    axon
  6. the brain and the spinal cord
    central nervous system
  7. a hindbrain structure at the base of the brain that is involved in the coordination of complex motor skills
    cerebellum
  8. the outer layer of the brain considered to be the seat of higher mental processes
    cerebral cortex
  9. the use of highly focused beams of X-Rays to construct detailed anatomical maps of the living brain
    computerized tomography scan (CT scan)
  10. the collection of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and allows information to pass from one side to the other
    corpus collosum
  11. the fibers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons
    dendrites
  12. a neurotransmitter that often leads to inhibitory effects; decreased levels have been linked to Parkison disease, and increased levels have been linked to schizophrenia.
    dopamine
  13. a device used to monitor the gross electrical activity of the brain
    electroencephalograph (EEG)
  14. a network of glands that uses the blood stream, rather than neurons, to send chemical messages that regulate growth and other internal functions
    endocrine system
  15. morphine like chemicals that act as the brain's natural painkillers
    endorphins
  16. the similarities and differences among biological (blood) relatives are studied to help discover the role heredity plays in physical and psychological traits
    family studies
  17. the outer portion of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and the structures of the limbic system
    forebrain
  18. one of the four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located on the top front of the brain; it contains the motor cortex and may be involved in higher level thought processes
    frontal lobe
  19. a neurotransmitter that may play a role in the regulation of anxiety, it generally produces inhibitory effects
    gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)
  20. segments of chromosomes that contain instructions for influencing and creating particular hereditary characteristics
    genes
  21. the actual genetic information inherited from one's parents
    genotype
  22. cells that fill in space between neurons, remove waste, or helps neurons to communicate efficiently
    glial cells
  23. a primitive part of the brain that sits at the juncture point where the brain and spinal cord merge.  Structures in the hindbrain including the medulla, pons, and reticular formation, act as the basic life support system for the body
    hindbrain
  24. chemicals released into the blood by the various endocrine glands to help control a variety of internal regulatory functions
    hormones
  25. a forebrain structure thought to play a role in the regulation of various motivational activities, including eating, drinking, and sexual behavior
    hypothalamus
  26. cells that transfer information from one neuron to another; inter neurons make no direct contact with the outside world
    inter neurons
  27. a system of structures thought to be involved in motivational and emotional behaviors (the amygdala) and memory (the hippocampus)
    limbic system
  28. a device that uses magnetic fields and radio-wave pulses to construct detailed three dimensional images of the brain; "functional" MRIs can be used to map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  29. the middle portion of the brain, containing such structures as the tectum, superior colliculus, and inferior colliculus; midbrain structures serve as neural relay stations and may help coordinate reactions to sensory events
    midbrain
  30. cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavior
    motor neurons
  31. a spontaneous change in the genetic material that occurs during the gene replication process
    mutation
  32. an insulating material that protects the axon and helps to speed up neural transmission
    myelin sheath
  33. bundles of axons that make up neural "transmission cables"
    nerves
  34. the cells in the nervous system that receive and transmit information
    neurons
  35. an interdisciplinary field of study directed at understanding the brain and its relation to behavior
    neuroscience
  36. chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next
    neurotransmitters
  37. one of the four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located at the back of the brain, visual processing is controlled here
    occipital lobe
  38. one of the four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located roughly on the top middle portion of the brain; it contains the somatosensory cortex, which controls the sense of touch
    parietal lobe
  39. the network of nerves that links the central nervous system with the rest of the body
    peripheral nervous system
  40. a person's observable characteristics, such as red hair.  The phenotype is controlled mainly by the genotype but it can also be influenced by the environment
    phenotype
  41. a kind of master gland in the body that controls the release of hormones in response to signals from the hypothalamus
    pituitary gland
  42. a method for measuring how radioactive substances are absorbed in the brain, it can be used to detect how specific tasks activate different areas of the living brain
    position emission tomography (PET)
  43. largely automatic body reactions--such as the knee jerk--that are controlled primarily by spinal cord pathways
    reflexes
  44. the period of time following an action potential when more action potentials cannot be generated
    refractory period
  45. the tiny electrical charge in place between the inside and outside of the resting neuron.
    resting potential
  46. cells that carry environmental messages toward the spinal cord and brain.
    sensory neurons
  47. a neurotransmitter that has been linked to sleep, dreaming, and general arousal and may also be involved in some psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.
    serotonin
  48. the cell body of a neuron
    soma
  49. the collection of nerves that transmits information toward the brain and connects to the skeletal muscles to initiate movement; part of the peripheral nervous system
    somatic system
  50. the small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron
    synapse
  51. one of the four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex; located roughly on the sides of the brain, its involved in certain aspects of speech and language perception
    temporal lobe
  52. the tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals important to neural transmission.
    terminal buttons
  53. a relay station in the forebrain thought to be an important gathering point for input from the senses
    thalamus
  54. identical twins, who share genetic material, are compared to fraternal twins in an effort to determine the role heredity and environment play in psychological traits
    twin studies

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