Anatomy Lecture 1 - Anatomical Terminology

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Kalanzo
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23090
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Anatomy Lecture 1 - Anatomical Terminology
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2010-06-11 00:00:14
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UNLV DPT
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UNLV DPT 744 Gross Anatomy 1 Lecture 1 - Anatomical terminology
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  1. Describe anatomical position:
    Standing erect, with head, eyes and toes directly anterior. Arms at the side with palms facing anterior, lower limbs together with toes pointing anteriorly.
  2. Sagittal Plane
    Lines passing through the body parallel to the median plane. The plane passing directly through the middle of the body is the midsaggital plane. Sagittal planes divide the body into left and right sides
  3. Coronal plane
    Also called the frontal plane. Vertical plane passing through the body perpendicular to the sagittal plane. These planes divide the body into anterior nad posterior sections.
  4. Transverse Plane
    Also the horisontal plane. Refers to imaginary planes passing through the body perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes. Divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
  5. Anterior
    Near the front
  6. Posterior
    Near the back
  7. Cranial
    Nearer to the head
  8. Caudal
    Nearer to the feet
  9. Lateral
    Farther from the median plane
  10. Medial
    Nearer to the median plane
  11. Proximal
    Nearer to the trunk or point of origin
  12. Distal
    Farther from the trunk of point of origin
  13. Superficial
    Nearer to the surface
  14. Intermediate
    Between a superficial and deep structure
  15. Deep
    Farther from the surface
  16. Flexion
    Bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
  17. Extension
    Straightening of increasing the anlge of the joint
  18. Abduction
    Moving away from the median plane in the coronal plane
  19. Adduction
    Moving towards the median plane in the coronal plane
  20. Rotation
    Revolving of turning a part about its longitudinal axis
  21. Median rotation
    Also called internal rotation. Brings the anterior surface of a limb closer to the median plane.
  22. Lateral Extension
    Also called External rotation. Takes the anterior surface away from the median plane.
  23. Circumduction
    Circular motion that incorporates flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction in such a way that the distal end of a segment moves in a circle.
  24. Opposition
    Movement by which the pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit's pad.
  25. Protrusion
    Movement anterior, as in the case of the mandible
  26. Protraction
    Also used to describe anterior movements, usually associated with the shoulder (scapula).
  27. Retraction
    Posterior movement, usually associated with the shoulder (scapula)
  28. Elevation
    Raising or moving a part superiorly
  29. Depression
    Lowers or moves a part inferiorly
  30. Eversion
    Moves the sole of the foot awat from the median plane.
  31. Inversion
    Moves the sole of the foot toward the median plane
  32. Pronation
    • Hand - medial rotation of the forearm
    • Foot - combination of eversion and abduction
  33. Supination
    • Hand - lateral rotation of the forearm
    • Foot - combination of inversion and adduction
  34. What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
    epithelium, connective, muscle, and nerve
  35. What are 4 types of epithelial tissue? And what do they do?
    • 1. Simple - easy diffusion (mouth and lungs)
    • 2. Stratified
    • 3. Mucous membranes
    • 4. Serous Membranes (secrete)
  36. What is a fibroblast?
    A cell that helps to form connective tissue
  37. Give 6 examples of connective tissues:
    • 1. Blood Plasma
    • 2. Adipose Tissue (fat)
    • 3. Tendon
    • 4. Ligaments
    • 5. Cartilage
    • 6. Bone
  38. What is the extracellular matrix?
    • 1. the intercellular substance of a tissue
    • or the tissue from which a structure develops.
    • 2. groundwork; the base in which or from which a
    • thing develops.
  39. What is the primary characteristic of muscle cells?
    They are contractible.
  40. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Skeletal
    • 2. Smooth
    • 3. Cardiac
  41. What is the unique property with nerve tissue?
    It is excitable.
  42. In the spinal cord, what is the gray matter?
    Cell bodies for the motor efferent spinal nerves.
  43. In the spinal cord, what is the white matter?
    The interconnecting fiber tract systems in the spinal cord. Myelinated nerve fibers.
  44. Name the basic parts of a neuron:
    Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell body, dendrite, axon, axon Hillock, myelinated sheaths, Node of Ranvier, terminal branches

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