Anatomy Lecture 1 - Anatomical Terminology
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Describe anatomical position:
Standing erect, with head, eyes and toes directly anterior. Arms at the side with palms facing anterior, lower limbs together with toes pointing anteriorly.
Lines passing through the body parallel to the median plane. The plane passing directly through the middle of the body is the midsaggital plane. Sagittal planes divide the body into left and right sides
Also called the frontal plane. Vertical plane passing through the body perpendicular to the sagittal plane. These planes divide the body into anterior nad posterior sections.
Also the horisontal plane. Refers to imaginary planes passing through the body perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes. Divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Nearer to the head
Nearer to the feet
Farther from the median plane
Nearer to the median plane
Nearer to the trunk or point of origin
Farther from the trunk of point of origin
Nearer to the surface
Between a superficial and deep structure
Farther from the surface
Bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Straightening of increasing the anlge of the joint
Moving away from the median plane in the coronal plane
Moving towards the median plane in the coronal plane
Revolving of turning a part about its longitudinal axis
Also called internal rotation. Brings the anterior surface of a limb closer to the median plane.
Also called External rotation. Takes the anterior surface away from the median plane.
Circular motion that incorporates flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction in such a way that the distal end of a segment moves in a circle.
Movement by which the pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit's pad.
Movement anterior, as in the case of the mandible
Also used to describe anterior movements, usually associated with the shoulder (scapula).
Posterior movement, usually associated with the shoulder (scapula)
Raising or moving a part superiorly
Lowers or moves a part inferiorly
Moves the sole of the foot awat from the median plane.
Moves the sole of the foot toward the median plane
- Hand - medial rotation of the forearm
- Foot - combination of eversion and abduction
- Hand - lateral rotation of the forearm
- Foot - combination of inversion and adduction
What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
epithelium, connective, muscle, and nerve
What are 4 types of epithelial tissue? And what do they do?
- 1. Simple - easy diffusion (mouth and lungs)
- 2. Stratified
- 3. Mucous membranes
- 4. Serous Membranes (secrete)
What is a fibroblast?
A cell that helps to form connective tissue
Give 6 examples of connective tissues:
- 1. Blood Plasma
- 2. Adipose Tissue (fat)
- 3. Tendon
- 4. Ligaments
- 5. Cartilage
- 6. Bone
What is the extracellular matrix?
- 1. the intercellular substance of a tissue
- or the tissue from which a structure develops.
- 2. groundwork; the base in which or from which a
- thing develops.
What is the primary characteristic of muscle cells?
They are contractible.
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
- 1. Skeletal
- 2. Smooth
- 3. Cardiac
What is the unique property with nerve tissue?
It is excitable.
In the spinal cord, what is the gray matter?
Cell bodies for the motor efferent spinal nerves.
In the spinal cord, what is the white matter?
The interconnecting fiber tract systems in the spinal cord. Myelinated nerve fibers.
Name the basic parts of a neuron:
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell body, dendrite, axon, axon Hillock, myelinated sheaths, Node of Ranvier, terminal branches
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