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What does FIFA stand for?
Federation Internationale de Football Association
When did FIFA begin?
- Seven members.
How many members were there in 1914
- This included the "Home Associations" England, N. Ireland, Scotland and Walesl
What caused the problems between FA / FIFA in 1918?
The relationship soured as the result of a power struggle for control of the game.
The FA was also against professionalism for international competitions.
Due to this the FA withdrew from the Olympics from 1920 on.
Who created the World Cup?
Jules Rimet - President of FIFA from 1921 - 54
RIMET believed in the "Football Family" and that football encouraged christian ideas.
He felt for football to progress the best players must be allowed to play internationally (professionals).
Creation of World Cup caused major power shift away from FA to FIFA.
Where was the first continental soccer confederation?
South America in 1916
Known as CONMEBOL
Where was the first world cup held?
Uruguay in 1930.
- Date chosen to celebrate 100 years of independence from Argentina
- Uruguay offered to pay expenses of other teams.
- 13 teams played. Seven from SA. Four from Europe, Two from NA.
- Uruguay won - had won 1924 and 1928 olympics.
Who influenced FIFA after RIMET?
The next influential president was the Englishmen, Stanley ROUS.
President from 1961 - previously secetary of FA 1934 - 61
Former International Referee who wrote the rules of the game.
Reintroduced FA to FIFA (had left in 1928)
Was thought to be unfair to non-European teams and forced out by HAVELANGE
Joao HAVELANGE 1974 - 1998
- Brazillian representative swimmer / water polo player (1936 / 1952 Olympics)
- Buisiness man / entrepreneur
- Assisted Brazillian team at World Cup in 1958 / 62 & 70.
- Gained presidency by promising increased competitions.
- Increased teams in World Cup from 16 - 24.
- Increased money for development of poorer teams / stadiums etc.
- Professional courses.
How did HAVELANGE expand FIFA over his 24 years in charge?
- From one 16 team tournament to 32 nation World Cup.
- World Championships for Youth and Women + ?
- 11 competitions now staged by FIFA.
- $4 billion dollars in coffers.
- Football worth $250 billion annually.
- Transnational media partners
- Partnerships with global giants - Coca Cola, Adidas, McDonalds.
- Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1988.
Was HAVELANGE a miracle worker?
- HAVELANGE's business style seems to have been "dictatorial."
- He was able to keep his election promises by generating large amounts of cash through sponsorhsip - DASSLER of Addidas who was able to gain further sponsorhip with Coca Cola.
- Increased footballs appeal and player base in Asia, China, Tunisia, USSR, S. America, Arabian Gulf.
- Countries were in Coca Cola's marketing strategy.
- Increased FIFA funds dramatically.
- Coca Cola happy with publicity - put $10 millin into 1978 World Cup.
- Other major sponsors included Gillette, Seiko +
- Competitions necessary to "feed" sponsors and justify $$$$
- HAVELANGE was not contested for five presidencies.
- Allegations of financial misappropriation / arms dealing / running FIFA like he owned it.
- FIFA is a non-commercial organisation and has no company reporting requirements. NO accountability.
What part did Horst DASSLER play? (TOMLINSON & SUGDEN)
- DASSLER - president of Adidas.
- Assisted HAVELANGE to find $$$ needed to fulfill election promises.
- Brought sport network and GLOBAL MARKETING vision.
- Recognised increasing professionalism & commercialism of sport - power of international sports federations.
- Believed TV would generate $$ through sponsorhip and marketing of multi-nationals.
- DASSLER approached Patrick NALLY - UK sport sponsorship agent.
- NALLY persuaded Coca Cola #2 - Al Killeen to back World Cup. Other big sponsors follow.
- Killeen wants to "mobilise" commitment and passion of soccer fans for his product.
- DASSLER uses experience in cut throat business practice.
- DASSLER & NALLY produce FIFA strategy on global basis.
- Run by BLATTER - HAVELANGE's protege.
- FIFA's power ++++ Coca Cola's market ++++
- World sports organisations infilitrated by ruthless & greedy.
- 1982 - International Sport & Leisure (ISL) marketing company jointly owned by Dassler and Dentsu treated favourably by FIFA and IOC- $$$
- Sponsorhip packages - guarantee exclusivity in merchandise and franchising for elite global brands... $$$
- DASSLER died in 1987.
How did TV change the World Cup? (HORNE & MANZENREITER)
- 1. 1900's sport journalism in press.
- 2. 1930's games broadcast on radio nationally.
- 3. 1936 Olympics football match broadcast to world "live" and televised within Berlin.
- Television had greatest impact - nature / scale of / research interest in major sport events (ROCHE).
- 4. By 1960's satellite broadcasts provide live action on global scale.
- 5. Sport becomes economic commodity and invested in meanings of identity - local and national.
- 6.TV creates mega-events - host cities.
- 7. TV rights become more lucrative than sponsorhip, tickets or merchandising - ROCHE.
- Kick offs etc organised for world clock timings.
- Accumulated audience for World Cup / Olympics greater than world population??
- 8. World TV rights, exlcuding US, for 2002 / 2006 World Cup = $1.97 billion.
- 9. Unholy alliance - television, sponsors, marketing agencies.
- 10. Player income upto 166,000 pounds per week.
- 11. Clubs financially unstable.
World Cup Hx
- 1. ROUS' presidency causes third world countries to demand more say.
- 2. 1966 - England wins World Cup - allegations of bias.
- 3. 1974 HAVELANGE ousts ROUS.
- Increases teams in World Cup from 16 to 24.
- Offers financial assistance to poor associations.
- 4. 1982 - World Cup teams increase to 24.
- 5. 1998 - World Cup teams increase to 32.
- FIFA estimated to have $4 billion in assets.
- 6. 1998 - New President Hans BLATTER emphasises "universality of soccer"
History of Football (ROCHE)
- 1. Football played at public school.
- 2. Football Association (1863) so that ex-pupils can continue to play.
- 3. Sailors, soldiers, ex-pats take game abroad.
- 4. Leisure Revolution. Working class have greater time and income.
- 5. Football promoted to give characther, pluck, team spirit, fairplay. "Healthy mind in a healthy body."
- 6. World Cup - 1930. 13 teams. Power base moves towards FIFA.
- 7. Football creates identity, workplace, village, region, nation, continent.
- 8. Players become infamous - Pele, Maradonna.
- 9. Game increases in popularity - Easy to learn (17 rules), easy to play (11 players), exciting, unpredictable.
- 10. Most popular game in Europe, S. America, Asia & Africa.
Early football history
- 1. 1860's football taught in public schools. Cult of athleticism. Played by wealth (amateur ethos).
- 2. 1877 Common rules. membership of FA increases from 10 in 1867 to 10,000 by 1905.
- 3. Leisure revolution / muscular christianity.
- 4. 1880's - Clubs buy grounds, charge admission.
- 5. pre 1914 - Annual profit of major teams upto $3,000 pounds.
- 6. Players demand share.
- 7. 1885 - Professionalism allowed. FA forced to agree.
- 8. 1870 - First international - England / Scotland.
- 9. 1888 - Football League (forerunner of Premier Division).
- 10. 1901 - FA Cup watched by 100,000 people. "peoples game."