Chapter 7 anatomy respiratory system
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What are the organs responsibility in the Respiratory system?
Bringing fresh air in lungs exchange oxygen with carbon dioxide between air sacs of lungs and blood stream exhaling stale air
What are the organs of the respiratory system ?
Nasal cavity, pharynx , larynx, trachea, bronchial , tubes and lungs
- function together to aid respiration
- removal of carbon dioxide needed
- respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen
What are the three parts of the respiration system?
Ventilation- flow of air between lungs and environment
External respiration- exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Internal respiration- oxygen and carbon exchange on a cellular level
What are the two oxygen flows?
Inhalation- flow of air in the lungs
- Exhalation- flow of air outside of lungs
- removes carbon dioxide
Ventilations begins with the Nasal cavity
Air enters through two external openings in the nose called the Nares
Nasal cavity is divided down the middle by Nasal Septum
Palate roof of the mouth separates nasal cavity above from mouth below
Walls of the nasal cavity and septum are covered with Mucous Membrane
What does mucus do?
Cleans the air by trapping dust and bacteria
What does Cilia which are small hairs that line the nose do?
Filter out dirt particles before it can enter lungs
Air filled cavities
located within facial bones
Echo chamber gives voice resonance
Used by respiratory and digestive system
End pharynx enters trachea food and liquids are pushed to the esophagus
3 parts of the Pharynx
Upper - nasopharynx
What are the three pairs of tonsils?
Adenoids aka Pharyngeal tonsils
Palastine tonsils aka lingual tonsils
What are the actions of the tubes?
Opens equalize air pressure between the middle and the outside atmosphere
Located between the pharynx and trachea
Contains the vocal cord
produce sound as vibration air that passes through the glottis which is the opening between the two vocal cords
Larynx aka voice box
- Flap of cartilaginous tissue
- Epiglottis sits above the glottis and provides protection against food and liquids being inhaled into lungs
Covers larynx and trachea during swallowing and shuts food and liquid from the pharynx into esophagus
Known as Adams Apple
Bigger in man to produce a deeper voice
Trachea aka windpipe
Passage way for air
extends from pharynx and larynx down to main brochi
Smooth muscle and cartilage rings mucous membrane and cilia assists in cleansing, warming and moisturizing air as it travels to the lungs
Trachea divides to form left and right main bronchi
Bronchus enters lung to form secondary and tertiary bronchi
The narrowest branch - Bronchioles
Are air sacs
Walls of the alveoli are elastic giving them the ability to expand to hold air
Encases each alveolus
Alveoli and capillaries single unit as the respiratory membrane
Exchange of Oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place across the respiratory membrane
Spongy to the touch because they contain air.
Lungs are protected by the pleura ( membrane) pleura's outer membrane is the parietal pleura.
Inner membrane - visceral pleura surface of lungs.
What is the name of the sac that is around the lungs?
Where is serous fluid found?
Between the two layers of the pleura
helps reduce friction when the two layers rub together as the lungs contract and expand
Lobes in the lungs
Three lobes in the larger right lung ( right upper, right middle and right lower lobes)
two in the left lung ( left upper and left lower lobes)
Superior portion -Apex
Broader lower portion - base
- Is the entry into the structure of bronchi, blood vessels and nerves into each lung occurs.
- entry and exit point
Area between the right and left lung contains the heart , aorta , esophagus , thymus gland and trachea
Lung volumes and capacities
Respiratory therapist - measures lung capacities and functioning levels of respiratory system
Pulmonary Function test
Air moves in and out lungs by difference in atmospheric pressure
Pressure in chest cavity
Muscle that separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
Produces difference in pressure
Diaphragm contracts and then moves downward s
Located between the ribs - assist in inhalation by rising the rib cage to enlarge the thoracic cavity
when the intercostal muscles relax the thoracic cavity become smaller
Our vital signs along with heart rate temperature and blood pressure
Respiratory rate is regulated by CO square in the blood CO2 is high we breath more rapidly expel the excess when co2 levels drop our respiratory levels drop our respiratory rate will drop
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