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A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
Innovation and risk taking.
The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.
Attention to detail
The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them.
The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.
The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
- Boundry- Defining Role
- Convey's a sense of identity
- facilitates generation of commitment
- enhances stability
- serve as sense making
- guides & shaes attitudes
research identifies seven primary characteristics that captures the essence of an organization's culture
- Innovation & Risk taking
- Attention to detail
- outcome orientation
- people orientation team orientation
A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members.
The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization.
Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.
A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.
A condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality.
The shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment.
A process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture.
The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization.
The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
Formal vs. Informal
The more a new employee is segregated from the ongoing work setting and differentiated in some way to make explicit his or her newcomer’s role, the more socialization is formal. Specific orientation and training programs are examples. Informal socialization puts the new employee directly into the job, with little or no special attention.
Individual vs. Collective
New members can be socialized individually. This describes how it’s done in many professional offices. They can also be grouped together and processed through an identical set of experiences, as in military boot camp.
Fixed vs Variable
This refers to the time schedule in which newcomers make the transition from outsider to insider. A fixed schedule establishes standardized stages of transition. This characterizes rotational training programs. It also includes probationary periods, such as the 8- to 10-year “associate” status used by accounting and law firms before deciding on whether or not a candidate is made a partner. Variable schedules give no advance notice of their transition timetable. Variable schedules describe the typical promotion system, in which one is not advanced to the next stage until one is “ready.”
Serial vs. Random
Serial socialization is characterized by the use of role models who train and encourage the newcomer. Apprenticeship and mentoring programs are examples. In random socialization, role models are deliberately withheld. New employees are left on their own to figure things out.
Investiture vs. Divestiture
Investiture socialization assumes that the newcomer’s qualities and qualifications are the necessary ingredients for job success, so these qualities and qualifications are confirmed and supported. Divestiture socialization tries to strip away certain characteristics of the recruit. Fraternity and sorority “pledges” go through divestiture socialization to shape them into the proper role.
The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization.
Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization, which goals are most important, which people are important, and which are expendable.