What are the characteristics of metal. What is responsible for these characteristics
Lustrous, ductile (easily stretched), malleable (shapable), thermally and electrically conductive. The way the electrons exist in a sea
Describe group 1A elements
They are the alkali metals. They form soft solids with low melting points and easily form +1 cations.
Deascribr group 2A elements
Alkaline earth metals. They are harder, more dense and have higher melting temps than alkali metals. They form +2 cations and are less reactive than alkali metals. Heavier ones are more reactive than lighter ones.
Describe group 4A elements
These elements form four covalent bonds with nonmetals. Only carbon can make strong pi bonds
Describe group 5A elements
Form 3 covalent bonds. All but nitrogen have d orbitals and can form 5 covalent bonds.
What two items of info allow you to predict the charge on transition metal ions
1: electrons are lost from highest energy shell first
2: ions look for symmetry. Representative elements make form noble gas electron configuration. Transition metals even out electrons I n d orbitals.
What are the representative elements. What are the transition elements
Representative: all the group A
Transition: all the group B
What are the periodic trends
Energy of ionization
Acidity - increases left to right, top to bottom
All beginning with "E" have trends increasing from left to right and bottom to top
Other two increase right to left and top to bottom
Describe the difference between a group and a family on a periodic table
There is no difference. They are synonomous
Atomic number vs mass number and symbols for each
Atomic number: defines an element and represents the number of protons (Z)
Mass number: approximates the MW of an element by adding the number of neutrons to protons. (A)
Def an amu/dalton
Amu is actually a mass
1 amu = 1 C(12) atom
6.022*10^23 amu= 1 gram
The atomic weight, or molar mass of an atom.
Define a compound, emperical formula, molecule, and molecular formula
Compound: a substance made from two or more elements in a defines ratio
Empirical formula: gives the ratio of one element to another in a compound
Molecule: units of repeated and distinct groups of elements. Water is a molecule. Saline is a compound
Molecular formula: the exact number of elements found in a molecule
Def percent mass of an element in a molecule. How do you find the empirical formula from mass percent
Mass percent=(Mass of the element)/(mass of the molecule)
Empirical formula = [ (mass percent of an atom in a molecule * 100g)/(mol weight of of that atom)= moles of that atom. Compare ratios of the miles of each atom
How to name cations
Cations first (with roman numerals for charge) or -ic to the end of cations with greater charge and -ous to cations with lesser charge
If cations is a nonmetal, it ends in -ium (ie. Ammonium)
How to name anions
Monatomic and polyatomic ions get suffix -ide (hydroxide = OH- or Hydride= H-)
Polyatomic anions with multiple O's end with -ite or ate (more O's). If more possibilities exist, add hypo- or hyper- prefixes
If oxyanion has a hydrogen, add the word hydrogen to front
How to name ionic compounds
Put cations first
How to name Acids
Based on anion. If the anion ends in -ide, acid begins with hydro- and ends in -ic.
If an oxyacid, -ic is used for species with more O's,and -ous for less
How to name binary molecular compounds
Name begins with element farthest to left and lowest in periodic table, second gets suffix -ide. Use Greek number prefixes as necessary.
What are the fundamental reaction types
3: single displacement
4 double displacement
Name, define the quantum numbers, describe how to derive them
Principal quantum number(n): designates shell level (outermost shell is given by period for representative elements, lags one for transition, lanth/actinides lag 2 periods)