Spain and Portugal.txt
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Spain and Portugal.txt
Name the 6 official quality levels of Spanish wine (best to lowest)
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa) - Qualified DO
Denominacion de Origen (DO) - Denomination of Origin, each district has its own Consejos Reguladores
DO Pagos wines (aka Vino de Pago Calificado) - Single estates, not necessarily within a DO
Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica (VCIG) - Quality Wines with Geographical Indication
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT) - Country Wine, min 60% from that region
Vino Comarcal (VC) - Local Wine (not an official quality level but fits here)
Vino de Mesa (VdM) - Table Wine, no vintage allowed until recently
Name the 2 DOCa regions
: introduced classification
Name the 11 DO Pagos wines
: Campo de la Guardia, Dehesa del Carrizal, Dominio de Valdepusa, Finca Elez, Pago Guijoso, Pago Casa del Blanco, Pago Florentino, Calzadilla
: Senorio de Arinzano, Prado de Irache, Pago de Otazu
What is Grandes Pagos de Espania?
A marketing association for single wine estates from all of Spain's regions
What is DO de Pago (aka Vino de Pago Calificado)
Single estate wines (a force for modernization in Spain)
May be in DOCa, DO, or VdlT regions
Name the 19 Grandes Pagos de Espania wines
Dehesa del Carrizal Coleccion
Reserva Santa Rosa
Casa Castillo Pie Franco
Manuel Manzaneque Nuestra Seleccion
Dominio de Valdepusa Emeritus
Fillaboa Finca Monte Alto
What does Consejos Reguladores mean?
Name the main black grapes of Spain
Minimum 85% of a red Rioja blend (95% if destemmed) must be:
Tempranillo (Tinto Fino)
Mazuelo (aka Carinena, Carignan)
Experimental grapes such as Monastel or Cabernet Sauvignon may make up the remainder
Name some synonyms for Tempranillo
Tinto de Pais
Tinta de Toro
Tinta Roriz (only name for Tempranillo in Portugal)
Name some synonyms for Carignan
Name some synonyms of Granache
: Aragon, (Tinto) Aragones, Garnacha Tinta, Garnacho Tinto, Garnatxa, Lladoner
: Alicante, Grenache Noir
: Granaccia, Granacha
Name the main white grapes of Spain
Name the 5 Cava (sparkling wine) grapes of Spain
Name the 3 subzones of Rioja
Rioja Alta - best subzone; structure and ageworthy; clay soils with chalk (whites) and iron (Tempranillo)
Rioja Alavesa - Tempranillo predominant; soils; chalky soils; maritime climate
Rioja Baja - Garnacha predominant; overlaps Navarra; clay soils; warm and dry
Name the aging requirements of Rioja Crianza, Reserva & Gran Reserva
: 2/3/5 years (1/2/2 years in oak)
: 1/2/4 years (6 months in oak)
Name some top Rioja Producers
Baron de Ley
Marques de Crinon
Marques de Murrieta
Marques de Riscal
La Rioja Alta
CVNE (Compania Vinicola del Norte de Espana = Wine Company of Northern Spain)
Name a producer of traditional Rioja
Lopez de Heredia
What was the world's first demarcated wine region?
: Rioja (named after RIver OJA)
Spain's first DO in 1925
Spain's first DOCa in 1991
Name the best vintages for Rioja
Name the 5 districts of Navarra
Ribera Alta - finest wines; Viura important too
Ribera Baja - finest wines; very hot and dry; Garnacha predominant
Tierra Estalla - rosados from Tempranillo
Valdizarbe - smallest
Baja Montana - highest and wettest
What is Navarra known for?
Name the main black grapes of Navarra
Garnacha (Grenache) - most widely planted grape (red or white) in Navarra
Cabernet and Merlot
Name the main white grapes of Spain
What kind of oak is used in most Spanish wines?
American oak (Quercus alba)
Name the most important grape(s) of Priorat
Garnacha, Carinena, Cabernet, Syrah
Describe the Gratallops Project (Gratallops is a municipality in Priorat)
Plant on hills
Install drip irrigation and modern winemaking equipment
Make wines with more fruit and new (French) oak
Make wines with less alcohol and less oxidation
Who were the driving forces behind the Gratallops Project?
Carlos Pastrana (Costers sel Siurana) brought together Alvaro Palacios (Clos l'Ermita), Mas Martinet, Rene Barbier (Clos Magador), and Clos & Terrasses.
Name Spain's sparkling wine DO & the grapes
Cava, mostly in Medio Penedes
White grapes are Parallada, Xarel-lo, Macabeo
Black grape is Pinot Noir
Name 3 DO within Castilla-Leon
Ribera del Duero
: ribera means riverside
: 100% Tinta de Toro (Trempranillo)
: aromatic whites from Verdejo (similar to SB), plus SB and Viura, most with no oak
Name the most important grape(s) of Ribera del Duero
Tinto del Pais (Tempranillo) and Bordeaux varieties
Name the grape that Tinta de Toro is a synonym of
State the DO of Vega Sicilia
Ribera del Duero DO (Castilla-Leon)
Name a DO within Aragon
: Chardonnay, Viura, Alcanon, Garnacha (white)
: CS, Garnacha, Tempranillo, Moristel, Parrelata
Name the most important grape(s) of Rias Baixas
Albarino (90%) makes dry crisp whites
How do you pronounce Txakoli?
How do you pronounce Xarel-lo?
How do you pronounce Rias Baixas?
Name a grape that is also a DO
Name a region that is both a VdlT and a DO
State the region & style of Txakoli DO (Cantabria)
Light and acidic
Whites from Hondarribi Zuri
Reds from Hondarribi Beltza
What is Rueda DO (Castilla-Leon) known for?
Aromatic whites from Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc, and Viura
What are the 5 sub-zones of Rias Baixas DO (Galicia)?
Val do Salnes
Condado do Tea
Ribeira do Ulla
What is La Mancha DO (Castilla-La Mancha) known for?
Enormous vlume of wine
Whites from Airen (63%)
Reds from Cencibel (Tempranillo)
What is considered the best DO of Castilla-La Mancha)?
What is Malaga DO (Andalucia) known for?
Fortified wines similar to Sherry
Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez
What is Montilla-Moriles DO (Andalucia) known for?
Fortified and Unfortified wines similar to Sherry
Airen, Baladi, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez, Torrontes (more famous in Argentina)
Name the DOs of Murcia
Name the grapes and styles of Murcia
Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot
White, Rose, Red
Name some top Priorat Producers
Name some top Ribera Del Duero Producers
Condado de Haza
Dominio de Pingus
Name the best recent vintages for Ribera Del Duero
1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001
Name the 3 principal towns of Sherry
Jerez de la Frontera
Sanlucar de Barrameda
Puerto de Santa Maria
Name the grapes of Sherry
PX and Moscatel are raisinated and used for sweeting and color
All white grapes
State the character of Albariza soil
Calcareous white soil which traps the winter water so grapes get water all summer
Name the 3 soil types in Sherry
Albariza (primary soil type)
Describe the solera system
A method of fractional blending
Up to 1/3 of the oldest wine cask is bottled; the next oldest wine (Criadera) is used to top it up; and so forth up to the youngest wine (Anada).
Must have 7 years of wine before you can sell as Sherry.
No bottling date (yet)... the solera date is the date of the oldest wine
Name the 4 main styles of Sherry
: has flor, makes the lightest style, fortified to 15.5%
: Fino from Sanlucar de Barameda
: Fino aged to develop a nutty character, usually a dry style between Fino and Oloroso
: no flor, fortified to 18% and aged longer. Dry but some are sweetened and sold as Cream Sherries.
: flor has been interrupted, a dry style between Fino and Oloroso (rare and expensive)
: a single Solera Sherry bottled unblended with other stockkeeper's wine
What determines the price of Sherry
Not a big price difference between styles (except for Palo Cortado)
What is the only wine in the world that some people think has a salty flavor?
Chill Fino/Manzanilla, serve in a Copita Sherry glass, pair with Tapas
Yeast which grows on the surface of casks with no more than 15.5% alcohol
It lives off the nutrients in the wine and affects its color
Flor prevents the wine from being overly oxidized
Name the 4 official qualify levels of wines from Portual
Vinho de Mesa (VM)
: table wines
Vinho Regional (VR)
: equivalent to Vin de Pays
Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR)
: equivalent to VDQS
Denominacao de Origem Controlada (DOC)
: approved quality wine areas
Name 8 Vinho Regional (VR) wines of Portugal from north to south
Tras os Montes:
: Atlantic climate
: white wines of Periquita, chalk soil
: includes 5 DOCs; red wines of Aragonez and Castelao Frances)
Terras do Sado:
: includes 4 DOCs, red and white wine, source of cork trees
What is Colares DOC known for?
Ungrafted vines grown in sand
Ramisco grape (white)
Name some Portugal labeling terms
: dry sparkling wine
Engarrafado na origem
: estate bottled
: reserve wine with specific alcohol and aging requirements
Name the most important DOC of Portugal
Porto & Douro
Name the most important grape(s) of Vinho Verde
Dry white, rose, and red wines
Bottled young to undergo malolactic fermentation in bottle
Name the most important grapes of the Douro (now known as Duriense)
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
What are the predominant grapes of Dao DOC?
Touriga Nacional (red)
Terraced vineyards on granite slopes
What are the predominant grapes of Bairrada DOC?
: high acid, high tannin
Maria Gomez (white)
Clay-based soils with chalk
Name 6 important red Port grapes
Tinta Roriz (only name for Tempranillo in Portugal)
Bastardo (in both Port and Madeira but not important for either)
Name 6 important white Port grapes
Name the cities where Port has historically been aged
Villa Nova de Gaia
Describe the difference between Vintage & Tawny Port
: sometimes called un-wooded
From a single great year's harvest
Max 2 years in barrel (though some sources say 18-30 months)
Ruby color on release & throw sediment when mature
: sometimes called wooded
Usually a blend of multiple vintages (except Colheita)
Min 6 years in barrel (7 years for Colheita)
Only legal labeling terms are 10, 20, 30 or 40 year (average age of wines in blend)
Racked 3-4 times per year entire time in barrel thus no sediment once bottled
Tawny color (orangish brown) on release
State what is used to fortify Port
: on part (neutral grape spirit at 77%) is added to four parts must
Finished wine has 18-20% alcohol
What is a pipe?
traditional Port cask holding 550 liters
a large stone trough traditionally used to tread and ferment grapes when making port or sherry
Name the 4 most important grapes of Madeira
Malmsey (Malvasia, black version)
: Bastardo, Moscatel, Terrantez, Tinta Negra Mole (now called Negra Mole, the most widely planted grape)
Describe the estufagem process
Cooking the wines at 120 degrees F for 6-12 months
(every producer does it differently)
Sugars are caramelized and the wine becomes completely oxidized
Define Rainwater Madeira
A light dry blended Madeira
What is a Venencia?
A rod with a metal hook on one end and a cylindrical container on the other.
The cylindrical shape allows you to extract wine below flor in a barrel.
The skilled user is called a Venenciador.
It is used in Andalusia, Spain.
How does climate affect wine?
Cool climates result in High Acid and Low Alcohol
Hot climates result in Low Acid and High Alcohol
How much time in oak do ports have?
Ruby or Vintage Character
: no oak
Vintage or Quinta
: max 2 years; age vintage 20-30 years, age quinta 10 years
: 4 to 6 years
: min 6 years; medium sweet
: min 7 years
Dry to sweet
High acidity and alcohol
Different grapes than Port
Describe Madeira Varietals & Styles
: Dry, served chilled as apertifs; alcohol added after fermentation (like Sherry)
: Sweet, served with dessert or cheese; fermentation stopped by addition of spirit (like Port)
Malmsey is the richest style
What does the age indication on a Madeira label represent?
The youngest component in the blend
Contrast Vintage Madeira and Vintage Port
Vintage Madeira is aged a min of 20 years in wood and 2 years in bottle before release
Vintage Port is aged a max of 2 years
Contrast Colheita Madeira and Colheita Port
Both are aged a min. of 7 years from a single vintage
How did Port originate?
Abbey at Lamego
: practice of fortifying must during fermentation
Marquis de Pombal
: tightened rules; ordered boundary to be marked by granite posts (Pombal stones)
Pombal decreed all port must be fortified with aguardente bought from Portugese government; now, it can come from anywhere but must be tested at Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP)
Describe Ruby Ports (British palate)
: aged 18-30 months in cask; vintages must be approved by IVP
Single Quinta Port
: Vintage Port from a single vineyard
Late Bottled-Vintage Port (LBV)
: aged 4-6 years in cask; vintage and bottling years on label; filtered (modern, no decanting) and unfiltered (traditional, improve with age)
Vintage Character Port/Ruby Port
: Sweet, strong, and red; aged in bulk for 2-3 years; blended for consistency from multiple vineeyards and vintages
Describe Tawny Ports (Portuguese palate)
: inexpensive blends of white and red wines
: aged min 6 years in cask; average age of blend must be 10, 20, 30, or 40 years
: aged min 7 years cask from a single vintage
Tawny is racked 3 times a year while it is in barrel.
Most tawny is wooded but some is not.
Who declares the Port vintage?
Each producer declares their own vintage, potentially for a single vineyard
What are Barco Rebelhos?
Boats once used to transport wine fermented at the source down the Douro river to Oporto where it was aged, blended, and bottled. These boats now are only used as restaurants for tourists.