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State the 4 quality levels for Italian wines (from most to least regulated)
- Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)
- Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)
- Indicazioni Geografiche Tipica (IGT)
- Vino da Tavola (VdT)
Describe the Goria Laws
- Enacted in 1992 to address the shortcomings of the DOC System
- 1. IGT introduced
- 2. Riserva terminology tightened
- 3. Vineyard zones shrunk
Name the grape of Barolo & Barbaresco & its local synonym
Nebbiolo (Spanna, Chiavennasca, Picotendro)
Name the sparkling wine of Piedmont & its grape
- Asti DOCG is made from moscato (muscat)
- Roero DOCG also makes spumanti (sparkling wine) from Arneis
- Arneis = "little rascal" because it is hard to grow; dry, full body, pear, apricot.
- Arneis is featured in the white DOC wines of Roero and Langhe; also grown in CA, Austrailia, NZ.
State the grape of Gavi
Dry white from Cortese grape
Name the most widely planted grape of Piedmont
Barbera is the most widely planted (but Nebbiolo is king)
State the requirements for Barolo Riserva
- 3 years in barrel/bottle for "normal" and 5 years for Riserva
- Note: Barbaresco (the "queen" to Barolo's "king") aged 2 years for normal and 4 years for Riserva
Describe Barolo Chinato
- Barolo wine that has been aromatized with quinine
- (1 of the biggest jokes of the DOCG system)
Name Italy's first mandatory Metodo Tradizionale sparkling wine DOCG
- Franciacorta (made from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Bianco)
- This DOCG zone in Lombardy
- Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico was the second mandatory Metodo Tradizionale DOCG (2007), also in Lombardy
Name a DOCG for Prosecco and what state it is within
- Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco DOCG
- Asolo Prosecco DOCG
What are the grapes of Lombardy?
- White: Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco, Trebbiano (locally called Lugano)
- Red: Nebbiolo (locally called Chavennasca),Pinto Noir (locally called Pinot Nero)
What are the 4 Valpolicella wines?
- Valpolicella DOC (light and fruity)
- Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG (dry, 14%-16% alcohol, great with blue cheese)
- Valpolicella Ripasso DOC (rustic, between Valpolicella and Amarone styles)
- Reciota della Valpolicella DOC (sweet)
- Note: all 4 can have classico and superiore added to the name
Describe the Passito process
- Grapes are harvested and dried for several weeks in special rooms
- It is used to produce passito, recioto, and Amarone wines
- Young Valpolicella wine fermented on the lees of Amarone
- Ripasso means "re-passed"
State the difference between Amarone & Recioto
- Recioto is a sweet
- Amarone is dry (or off-dry)
- Amarone is a derivative of recioto
Name the grapes of Valpolicella & Bardolino
- Valpolicella: min 80% Corvina Veronese with lesser amounts of Rondinella, Molinara, and Negrara
- Bardolino: light, fruity reds from the same CRM grapes as Valpolicella
Name the main grape of Soave
- Min 70% Garganega, plus Trebbiano di Soave, Chardonnay, and Pinot Bianco
- Soave DOC is the principal and most important white wine zone in Veneto
Name the grapes of Veneto
- White: Pinot Grigio, Trebbiano, Garganega, Prosecco
- Black: CRM (Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara), Cabernet Franc, Merlot
Name the main grape of Valtellina
- Nebbiolo-based reds with up to 10% Pinot Nero and others
- Valtellina is Lombardy's most important zone for red wines
- Nebbiolo grape is known as Chiavennasca
- Valtellina Superiore is aged 2 years (1 year in cask), and Riserva wines are aged 3 years prior to release.
- Vatellina Superiore wines are labeled as "Stagafassli" if bottled in the neighboring territory of Switzerland.
What are the subregions of Valtellina Superiore DOCG?
Inferno, Grumello, Sassella, Valgella, Maroggia
Name 1 region of Italy where German grapes are common
Name the 7 DOCGs of Veneto
- Bardonlino Superiore
- Soave Superiore
- Recioto di Soave
- Recioto di Gambellara
- Amarone della Valpolicella
- Prosecco di Conegliano Valdobbiadene
- Prosecco di Montello e Colli Asolani
State the aging requirements for Brunello & Brunello Riserva
- Normale: 2 years in oak, 4 years total
- Riserva: 2.5 years in oak, 5 years total
Name 7 DOCG zones within Chianti
- Chianti Rufina
- Chianti Colli Fiorentini
- Chianti Colli Senesi
- Chianti Colline Pisane
- Chianti Colli Aretini
Name 1 of the DOCs created to include the Super Tuscans
- Bolgheri Sassicaia (created in 1994 to cover Sassicaia)
- Sant'Antimo (created in 1995 to cover Montalcino Super Tuscans)
Name Tuscany's only white DOCG
Vernaccia di San Gimignano: San Gimignano (sandy, rock-strewn soils )
State the production & style of Vin Santo
- Sweet wine from Passito Trebbiano and Malvasia
- Traditional in Tuscany.
State the production & style of Vin Santo (book answer)
- Holy Wine: high alcohol, almond- and honey-toned dried grape wine produced from Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes.
- Vin santo may be dry or sweet, depending on the length of the appassimento process.
- Production: The grapes are hung from rafters to dry (raisinated) follwed by a period of slow fermentation and aging in caratelli barrels from 3 to 8 years.
- Chestnut wood is traditionally used, allowing rapid oxidation, although many modern producers have switched to oak.
- The barrels are never topped�alcohol is concentrated through evaporation and the wine gains its characteristic amber hue.
- Vin Santo or Vino Santo (holy wine) is a style of Italian dessert wine.
- Traditional in Tuscany, these wines are often made from white grape varieties such as Trebbiano and Malvasia, though Sangiovese may be used to produce a rose style known as Occhio di Pernice or eye of the partridge.
State the non-traditional grape of the 1st Super Tuscans
State a red DOCG of Tuscany other than Chianti & name the grape
- Brunello di Montalchino
Name the newest DOCG of Tuscany
Elba Aleatico Passito
What is Italy's most prestigious wine region
- Tuscany (Toscana)
- 2nd to Piedmont in number of DOCGs
What was Italy's first demarcated wine region
- 2nd in the world after Rioja
Name the first 2 DOCGs in Tuscany:
Brunello di Montalcino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano were the first DOCG, awarded in 1980.
Name the grape(s) & style of Frascati DOC.
Trebbiano and Malvasia, carafe white wine from Latium
State the color & quality level of Est!Est!!Est!!! di Montefiascone
- Trebbiano and Malvasia, carafe white wine from Latium
- one of the worst wines of Italy but with an intriguing story
Name the grape(s) & style of Lambrusco (various DOCs).
Lambrusco, red and rose semi-sparkling wine from Emilia Romagna
Name Italy's first white DOCG
- Albana di Romagna DOCG
- can't find in U.S.
Name the grape(s) & style of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo DOC.
- Montepulciano and up to 15% Sangiovese (Chianti-like) from Abruzzi
- Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane DOCG is similar but up to 10% Sangiovese
Name the grape(s) & style of Rosso Conero DOCG.
- Dry reds from Montepulciano and Sangiovese grapes
- Rosso Piceno ("little") DOC is similar wine from Conero but allows Trebbiano and Passerina
Name the most famous producer of Torgiano Rosso Riserva DOCG.
- Cantine Lungarotti
- Umbrian red wine from Sangiovese and Montepulciano grapes
Name the grape(s) & style of Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG.
Dry passito and sweet passito red wines from Sagrantino grape
Name the grape(s) & style of Fiano d'Avellino DOCG.
Fiano, dry white, Campania
Name the grape(s) & style of Taurasi DOCG.
Aglianico, dry red, Campania
Name the grape of Apulia that has a USA connection.
Name the grape grown on Mt. Vulture in Basilicata.
State the type of wine from Marsala DOC & where it is made.
Fortified wine from Sicily
Name the grape(s) & style of Vermentino di Gallura.
- Vermentino, white
- Aromatic and rich wines and may see oak influence, although fresher styles are more common.
- Normale: min 12%
- Superiore: min 13%
Sicily's only DOCG zone
Cerasuolo di Vittoria
Sardinia's only DOCG zone
Vermentino di Gallura
Name the grape(s) & style of Greco di Tufo DOCG
Greco, dry white, Campania
Name the grape(s) & style of Fiano d'Avellino DOCG
Fiano, dry white, Campania
State the international name of the grape of Cannonau di Sardegna.
What region in Italy produces the most wine?
What is Italy's most planted white grape?
How much Sangiovese must be in Chianti?
- 70% to 90% Sangiovese plus 5%-10% Canaiolo Nero, 5%-10% Trebbiano or Malvasia, max 10% Cabernet
- Classico allows up to 100% Sangiovese
What is governo (Italy)?
Re-fermentation with the juice of dried grapes, to strengthen the wine and initiate malolactic fermentation
What soil types are common in Chianti?
- galestro: a soft, friable, marl-like soil (Sangiovese thrives)
- alberese: or sandstone
What are the alcohol and aging requirements for Chianti?
- Normale: 11.5% ABV
- Classico: 1 year and 12% ABV
- Riserva: 2 years and 12.5% ABV
- Note: Barrique often used for Riserva Chianti Classico.
Name the first Super-Tuscan wines
- First Super-Tuscans: Sassicaia 1968, Tignanello 1971
- 100% Sangiovese: Montevertine's Le Pergole Torte, Isole e Olena's Cepparello
Name a DOCG for dessert wine
- Elba Aleatico Passito
- Elba is an island off Tuscany
- Aleatico is a red grape
- Passito is process used to make straw wine
Name the 14 (of 20) states in Italy that have DOCGs
- Piedmont: 15
- Veneto: 11
- Tuscany (Toscana): 8
- Lombardy (Lombardia): 5
- Marche: 4
- Campania: 3 - Taurasi, Fiano d'Avellino, Greco di Tufo
- Friuli-Venezia Giulia: 3
- Umbria: 2 - Sagrantino di Montefalco, Torgiano Rosso Riserva
- Abruzzi: 1 - Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline
- Emilia-Romagna: 1 - Albana di Romagna
- Lazio (Latium): 1 - Cesanese del Piglio
- Basilicata: 1 - Aglianico del Vulture
- Sardinia (Sardegna): 1 - Vermentino di Gallura
- Sicily (Sicilia): 1 - Cerasuolo di Vittoria
Name the 6 states in Italy that have NO DOCGs
- Valle D'Aosta
- Trentino-Alto Adige
- Apulia (Puglia)
Name 4 styles of Valpolicella (Veneto)
- Young: fresh Valpolicella
- Amarone: Passito process; fermented dry
- Reciota: strong sweet wine made using passito process
- Ripasso: wine refermented on the lees of a recito wine
Name the main grapes of Veneto
- Valpolicella: Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
- Soave: Garganega
- Prosecco: Prosecco
Name Italian wine terms indicating sweetness
- Dolce: Very Sweet
- Amabile: Medium Sweet "ah-MAH-bee-lay"
- Abboccato: Slightly sweet
- Pastoso: Medium-sweet
- Semi-Secco: Medium-sweet
- Secco: Dry
- Amaro: Bitter or very dry
- Asciutto: Bone dry
Name Italian wine terms for sparkling wine
- Spumante: Fully sparkling
- Frizzante: semi-sparking (petillant)
- Frizzantino: very lightly sparkling
Name Italian wine terms for color
- Bianco: White
- Chiaretto: between very light red and rose
- Rosato: Rose
- Rosso: Red
Name some Italian labeling terms
- Classico: best zone within a region
- Consorzio: group of producers who promote wine
- Imbottigliato all'Origine: Estate Bottled
- Metodo Tradizionale: 2nd fermentation in bottle
- Annata: vintage
- Vendemmia: vintage
Name the DOC on the small islands around Sicily
- Lipari Islands: Malvasia delle Lipari
- Pantelleria: Moscato di Pantelleria, Passito di Pantelleria