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What are the % requirements for New World wines?
Oregon: 90% (Pinot Noir), 100% (AVA)
- USA: 75% (variety), 85% (AVA), 95% (vintage, vineyard)
- Canada: 85% (VQA, 95% in BC), 100% (Estate, Vineyard)
- Australia: 85%
- New Zealand: 85%
- Chile: 75% but usually 85% for export
- South Africa: 100% (WO), 85% (variety), 75% (vintage, 85% for export)
What are the appellations called for New World wines?
- USA: American Viticultural Area (AVA)
- Canada: Vinters Quality Alliance (VQA)
- Australia: Geographic Indications (GI)
- Chile: Denominations of Origin (DO)
- Argentina: Denominacion de Origen Controlada (DOC)
- Brazil: Origin Indication (OI)
- Uruguay: None
- South Africa: Wine of Origin (WO)
Who was America's first Master Sommelier?
What country made the first New World wine?
- South Africa
- In 1655, Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company founded Cape Town and established its first vineyard.
Name the first AVA in the U.S.
Augusta in Missouri was established in June 1980
Name the smallest AVA in the U.S.
Cole Ranch, in Mendocino County
Name the largest appellation in the world
The Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA, spanning nearly 30,000 square miles in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois
What was the first appellation in Brazil to receive Origin Indication status?
Vale do Vinhedos
State the major wine regions of California
- North Coast: Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, Lake, Marin, Solano
- Sierra Foothills: gold rush territory between Sacramento and the Sierra Nevada mountains
- Central Coast: Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara
- Central Valley: not considered an AVA but produces 75% of the state's wine; Lodi is most important AVA
- South Coast: Los Angeles to San Diego, not important
Name some AVAs in the northern part of the Central Coast
- San Francisco Bay
- Livermore Valley
- Santa Clara Valley (including Pacheco Pass and San Ysidro District)
- Santa Cruz Mountains
- Ben Lomond Mountain
- San Benito (including Mount Harlan, Paicines, Cienega Valley (which includes Lime Kiln Valley))
Name the sub-AVAs of Napa Valley
- Diamond Mountain District
- Spring Mountain District
- St. Helena
- Stags Leap District
- Mount Veeder
- Los Carneros (Carneros)
- Wild Horse Valley
- Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley
- Atlas Peak
- Chiles Valley ("CHI-ELS")
- Howell Mountain
Name the AVAs of Sonoma County
- Los Carneros (Carneros)
- Sonoma Valley
- Sonoma Mountain
- Bennett Valley
- Sonoma Coast
- Northern Sonoma
- Russian River Valley
- Green Valley of Russian River Valley
- Chalk Hill
- Dry Creek Valley
- Alexander Valley
- Knights Valley - warmest AVA in the county
Name the AVAs of Mendocino County
- Mendocino Ridge
- Anderson Valley - home to Roederer Estate
- Potter Valley
- Redwood Valley
- McDowell Valley - single vineyard AVA
- Yorkville Highlands
- Dos Rios
- Cole Ranch - single vineyard AVA
Name the AVAs of Monterey County
- Santa Lucia Highlands ("LOO-SEE-YA") - Garys' Vineyard
- Chalone (chalk soil)
- Hames Valley
- Arroyo Seco
- Carmel Valley
- San Antonio Valley
- San Bernabe
- San Lucas
What is Monterey County known for?
- lettuce capital of the world
Name the AVAs of San Luis Obispo County
- Paso Robles (including Templeton) - Syrah
- Arroyo Grande
- York Mountain
- Edna Valley - Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
What is Paso Robles known for?
- CS and Syrah growing in importance
Name the AVAs of Santa Barbara County
- Santa Maria Valley
- Santa Ynez Valley
- Sta. Rita Hills
- Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara
What is Santa Barbara County known for?
- The longest growing season in California
- Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot and Rhone varietals
Name AVAs of note in the Central Valley
- Lodi - 20% of CA wine production
- Dunnigan Hills
- Capay Valley
- Merritt Island
Name the 7 sub-AVAs of Lodi
- Mokelumne River
- Cosumnes River
- Borden Ranch
- Alta Mesa
- Clements Hills
What is Central Valley known for?
bulk wine quality - low in cost and site character
Name the sub-AVAs of Sierra Foothills
- California Shenandoah Valley
- El Dorado
- Fair Play
- North Yuba
What is Sierra Foothills known for?
Chewy, spicy, concentrated Zinfandel
State what agency regulates the U.S. wine industry
- TTB: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (since 2002)
- BATF: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (before 2002)
State the USA required percentage for varietal & AVA labeling
- Grape Variety: min 75%
- Vintage: min 95%
- Grape Origin: Required
- Country-State-County: min 75%
- AVA: min 85%
- Vineyard: min 95%
State a synonym for Fume Blanc
Name 3 California sparkling wine producers
- Winery: Parent
- Chandon: Moet and Chandon
- Roederer Estate: Louis Roederer
- Mumm Napa: G.H. Mumm
- Domaine Carneros: Tattinger
- Gloria Ferrer: Freixenet
- Shramsberg: California Family Owned
- Iron Horse: California Family Owned
Define Meritage (NOT "MAR-E-TAGHE")
- Concocted from Merit and Heritage, the term designates upmarket Bordeaux-style blends.
- The trademark can be used by any winery that is a paid member of the Meritage Association that use two or more of the permitted grapes with no single variety maaking up more than 90% of the blend.
- Black: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot, Carmenere, St. Macaire, Gros Verdot
- White: Sauvignon Blanc, Semillion, Muscadelle, Sauvignon Vert, Sauvignon Musque
State origins of Zinfandel
- Crljenak Kastelanski (Croatia) - "Sirl-YEN-ak Kastel-ARN-ski
- Plavac Mali (Croatia)
- Primitivo (Italy)
Name 3 California Pinot Noir specialists
- William Selyem
- Kosta Browne
- Merry Edwards
Name 3 top California Cabernet producers
- Stag's Leap Wine Cellars
- Diamond Creek
- Bryant Family
- Screaming Eagle
- Ridge Kathryn Kennedy
Name 3 produers of Rhone varietals or blends
- Tablas Creek
- Bonny Doon
- Qupe ("COO-PAY")
- Edmund St. John
- Gregory Graham
Name 3 California Zinfandel specialists
- Storybook Mountain
- Green and Red
- Brown Family
- Rober Biale
- Peachy Canyon
Name 3 top California Meritage Style wines
- Opus One
- Cain Five
- Joseph Phelps Insignia
Name some wine trade/consumer associations
Name 3 AVAs of Washington
- There are 11 AVAs in Washington, 3 of which overlap with Oregon:
- 1. Columbia Valley and subappellations (part in Oregon):
- Columbia Gorge (part in Oregon)
- Walla Walla Valley (part in Oregon)
- Red Mountain
- Yakima Valley
- Horse Heaven Hills
- Wahluke Slope
- Rattlesnake Hills
- Lake Chelan
- Snipes Mountain
- 2. Puget Sound
Name 3 AVAs of Oregon
- There are 16 AVAs in Oregon, 3 of which overlap with Washington:
- 1. Columbia Valley (part in Washington):
- Columbia Gorge (part in Washington)
- Walla Walla Valley (part in Washington)
- 2. Willamette Valley:
- Dundee Hills
- Ribbon Ridge
- Yamhill-Carlton District
- Eola-Amity Hills
- Chehalen Mountains
- 3. Southern Oregon:
- Umpqua Valley and its subappellation Red Hill Douglas County
- Rogue Valley and its subappellation Applegate Valley
- Snake River Valley (overlaps with Idaho)
State the Oregon requirement for varietal & AVA labeling
- 90% for Pinot Noir varietal (75% for nearly a dozen other grapes)
- 100% from stated AVA
Name 1 AVA of New York
- Finger Lakes (may be the best Riesling in the U.S.)
- Cayuga Lake
- Seneca Lake
- Niagara Escarpment
- Lake Erie
- Hudon River Region
- North Fork of Long Island
- The Hamptons, Long Island
- Long Island (known for Cabernet Franc)
Name the state where winemaking started in USA
- The U.S.A.'s oldest wine industry is in New York, with a history of using labrusca grapes and hybrids.
- The first vineyard in what is now New York was cultivated by the Dutch in 1642.
- The very first wine made in what is now Florida was made by French Huguenots at Fort Caroline in 1564.
Name 2 important wine regions of Canada
- Ontario: Niagrara Peninsula, Pelee Island, Lake Erie North Shore
- British Columbia: Okanagan Valley, Simikameen Valley, Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island
Name some top Canadian wine producers
- Ontario: Le Clos Jordanne, Flat Rocks Cellars, Cave Spring Cellars, Chateau des Charms, 13th Street, Konzelmann, Lailey Vineyard, Malivoire, Peninsula Ridge, Stratus Vineyards, Tawse Winery
- British Columbia: Jackson-Triggs, Blue Mountain, Burrowing Owl, Mission Hill Vineyards, Quails' Gate, Sumac Ridge
What does the VQA Seal of Quality guarantee?
- The Vinters Quality Alliance (VQA) is Canada's version of an AVA.
- It assures the consumer of quality production, content, varietal percentage, appellation, and vintage.
- 85% provincial appellation and 100% from Canada
- 85% specific appellation (95% in BC) and 100% from province
- 100% Estate
- 100% Vineyard
Name some top Washington State wine producers
- De Lille Cellars (Woodinville, red blends)
- Cayuse (Walla Walla, Syrah)
- Leonetti Cellar (Walla Walla)
Name the country where winemaking began on the American continent
- In 1521, the Spanish planted vines in Mexico and made the first North American wines.
- Between 1562 and 1564, the French Huguenot settlers produced wines from native Scuppernong grapes in (now) Jacksonville, Florida.
- Around 1564, the Jesuit settlers were the first winemakers in (now) Canada.
- Wine has been commercially produced in Canada since 1860.
- Note: George Yount planted the first vines in Napa in 1838
Name some top New York State wine producers
- Lamoreaux Landing (Finger Lakes)
- Bridgehampton (Long Island)
- Paumanok Vineyards (Long Island)
- Pellegrini Vineyards (North Fork of Long Island)
What are the important grapes of Willamette Valley?
- Pino Gris (Alsace style vs Italian Pinot Grigio style)
- Pinot Noir
What are the important grapes of Southern Oregon?
Bordeaux varietals, Syrah, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
Name the 10 largest U.S. Wine Groups
- Ernest & Julio Gallo: 75m cases
- Consellation Brands: 58m cases in U.S. (90m worldwide)
- The Wine Group: 25m cases
- JFJ Bronco: 9m cases (5m "Two Buck Chuck")
- Diageo: 6.3m cases in U.S. (7m worldwide)
- Brown-Forman: 6m cases
- Beringer Blass: 5.5m cases in U.S. including Stag's Leap Winery (17m worldwide)
- Jackson Wine Estates: 4m cases
- Beam Wine Estates: 4m cases worldwide (more than 3m in U.S.)
- Corbett Canyon: 3m cases (boxed wine)
Does California grow more white or black grapes?
2003 Acres: 287,075 Black, 185,373 White (1.5X more Black)
What are the top California Black grapes?
- 5 varieties account for 76% of the acreage.
- 15 varieties account for 96% of the acreage:
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Pinot Noir
- Ruby Cabernet
- Petite Sirah
- Cabernet Franc
- Petit Verdot
What are the top California White grapes?
- 5 varieties account for 89% of the acreage.
- 12 varieties account for 96% of the acreage:
- French Colombard
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Chenin Blanc
- Pino Gris
- Muscat of Alexandria
- Malvasia Bianca (Vermentino)
Name the best wine producers of Mexico
- Monte Xanic ("SHA-NIC")
- Casa Madero (2nd oldest winery --Bodega -- in North America)
- Pedro Domecq (good Cabernet Sauvignon)
- Casa de Piedra (good Cabernet Sauvignon-Tempranillo blend -- Vina)
- Chateau Camou (state of the art winery in Valle de Guadalupe, northern Baja)
- L.A. Cetto (Tijuana; excellent Nebbiolo)
- Freixenet Mexico (premium label is Vina Dona Dolores)
Where are the most grapes grown in Mexico?
- The state of Sonora is by far the largest grape-growing state in Mexico but most are for eating or raisins and all the wine grapes are distilled.
- Baja California Norte produces more than 90% of Mexico's wines
- Main quality districts are:
- Valle de Calafia
- Valle de Guadalupe
- San Antonio de la Minas
- Valle de Santo Tomas
- San Vincente
- Valle de Mexicali
What was one of the earliest grapes planted in the Americas?
- The black Mission grape
- aka Pais (Chile) and Criolla Chica (Argentina)
What is Argentina's most planted grape?
Name the DO Casablanca is within & what grapes the area is known for.
- Aconcagua (cool region)
- Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
Name the region Maipo is within & what wines the area is known for.
- Cabernet Sauvignon
State what is unique about the vines in Chile.
No Phylloxera so not grafted on American rootstock
Name the regional Denominations of Origin (DOs) of Chile from north to south
- Atacama: irrigated desert; grapes used for Pisco; CS and Syrah
- Coquimbo: irrigated desert; grapes used for Pisco; CS and Syrah (subregions: Elqui, Limari, Choapa)
- Aconcagua: CS and Merlot
- Valle Central (Central Valley): CS, Merlot, Chardonnay, Carmenere
- Sur: 3 valleys: Itata, Bio Bio, Malleco
What is Chile's oldest winemaking region?
The Central Valley DO, located between the Andes and the hills and ranges along the coast
Name the DO subregions of the Central Valley
- Maipo Valley: warm; Chile's most famous winemaking area
- Rapel Valley: warm; Casa Lapostolle Clos Apalta and Vina Montes Alpha M are Bordeaux-style blends
- Maule Valley: large region but quality is variable
Name the obscure Bordeaux varietal that is important in Chile.
Name two grapes mis-identified in Chile
- Sauvignon Blanc was Sauvignon Vert, or Friulano
- Merlot was Carmenere
Which wine from Chile placed ahead of Chateau Lafite and Chateau Margaux in the 2004 Berlin Tasting?
What grapes are Casablanca (Aconcagua) known for?
Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
State the minimum % for varietal labeling in Chile.
75% but usually 85% for export
What is the most important wine-producing country in South America?
Argentina (the world's 5th largest producer and 7th largest exporter)
Name the wine regions of Argentina
- Northwestern provinces: Jujuy, Salta (Cafayate, Calchaquies Valley, Tucuman), Catamarca
- Central provinces (Cuyo): La Rioja (Famatina Valley), Cordoba, San Juan (Tulum, Zonda, Ullum, Jachal, and Fertil Valleys) Mendoza: contains Lujan de Cuyo DOC and San Rafael DOC
- Southern provinces (Patagonia): La Pampa, Rio Negro, Neuquen
Name the wine regions of Mendoza (Malbec)
- North Mendoza
- Central: Lujan de Cuyo DOC, Maipu [NOTE SPELLING -- THIS IS NOT MAIPO WHICH IN IN CHILE)
- Southern: San Rafael DOC (Chenin Blanc), General Alvear
- East Mendoza
- Uco Valley: Tupungato, Tunuyan
Name 3 regions of Argentina and what grape they are known for
- Salta is known for Torrontes
- Mendoza is known for Malbec
- Rio Negro is known for Pinot Noir
Name the most important region & grape of Argentina
What white grape is Argentina known for?
Torrontes, a highly aromatic crossing of Criolla Chica x Muscat of Alexandria
Name the wine regions of Chile
- Atacama: Copiapo, Huasco
- Coquimbo: Elqui, Limari,Choapa
- Aconcagua DO: Aconcagua Valley, Casablanca, San Antonio/Leyda
- Central Valley DO: Maipo Valley, Rapel Valley (Cachapoal, Colchagua), Curico (Lontue, Teno), Maule Valley
- Sothern Regions DO: Itata, Bio Bio, Malleco
What is the oldest region in Chile?
What are the best regions in Chile?
- Maipo: Cabernet Sauvignon -- Chile's most famous region
- Casablanca: SB and Chardonnay
Name the most important grape of Uruguay
State the minimum % for varietal labeling
The Label Integrity Program requires any wines labeled by variety, vintage, or region to contain a minimum 85% of the stated grape, year, or region, respectively
State the significance of the order grapes are listed on a wine label
Blended wines list grapes in decreasing order of content
Name the grape of Penfold's Grange
Name the GI Quality Categories
- Produce of Australia: no vintage or variety allowed on label
- South Eastern Australia: All of NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and parts of SA and Queensland
- State of Origin: e.g., South Australia
- Zone: e.g., Barossa
- Region: e.g., Barossa Valley and Eden Valley
- Subregion: e.g., Frankland River and Swan Valley
Must regions be contained within a single zone?
- For example, Murray Darling and Swan Hill are located in both New South Wales (Big Rivers zone) and Victoria (North West Victoria zone).
Must zones be contained within a single state?
- In the Southern New South Wales zone, the Canberra District region is split between the state of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory
Name a GI within each: (South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales & Western Australia)
- State: Zone (Region [Subregion,...], ...); ...
- New South Wales: Hunter Valley (Hunter)
- Victoria: Port Phillip (Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula); North East Victoria (Rutherglen)
- South Australia: Barossa (Barossa Valley, Eden Valley); Limestone Coast (Coonawarra); Fleurieu (McLaren Vale), Mount Lofty Ranges (Clare Valley)
- Western Australia: South West Australia (Margaret River, Great Southern [Frankland River]); Greater Perth (Swan District [Swan Valley])
- Tasmania: No GIs
- Queensland: No Zones but has regions (Granite Belt, South Burnett, and unoffical Darling Downs) -- NOT IMPORTANT
Name the Australian Super-Zone
- South Eastern Australia
- Encompasses all of Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, along with portions of both South Australia and Queensland
What is the relationship between Adelaide, Adelaide Hills and Adelaide Plains GIs?
- South Australia: Adelaide is a "super-zone" allowing producers to blend freely from Barossa, Fleurieu, and Mount Lofty Ranges
- South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills, Adelaide Plains, Clare Valley)
Name a GI that is well known for Riesling
- South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (Clare Valley)
- Western Australia: South West Australia (Great Southern [Franklin River])
Name the state that produces promising sparkling wines
- Victoria: Port Phillip (Yarra Valley) has Australian Domaine Chandon
Name a GI that is well known for Semillon
New South Wales: Hunter Valley
Name a GI that is well known for Chardonnay
South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills [Lenswood, Piccadilly Valley])
Name a GI that is well known for Pinot Noir
Victoria: Port Phillip (Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula, Geelong)
Name a GI that is well known for Cabernet Sauvignon
- South Australia: Limestone Coast (Coonawarra)
- South Australia: Fleurieu (McLaren Vale) - also known for Rhone varietals
Name a GI that is well known for Shiraz
South Australia: Barossa (Barossa Valley)
State the local name for the soil of Coonawarra
What are the most important grapes of Australia?
- Black: Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Merlot
- White: Chardonnay, Riesling, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Verdelho
Where is Casella's Yellow Tail sourced from?
- New South Wales: Big Rivers (Riverina)
- Note: Riverina is also known as the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area
Where is Riverland (Australia's equivalent to California's Central Valley)?
South Australia: Lower Murray (Riverland) - bulk wine, heavily irrigated, high soil salinity
Name 5 wine regions on New Zealand's North Island
- Northland: smallest region, less than 1% NZ wine
- Auckland: Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon; hilly Waiheke Island is sunny and dry
- Waikato/Bay of Plenty: less than 1% NZ wine
- Gisborne (aka Poverty Bay): Chardonnay
- Hawkes Bay: Merlot, Bordeaux style blends
- Martinborough: Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc
Name the 4 wine regions on New Zealand's South Island
- Nelson: sunny and rainy; Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Pinot Noir
- Marlborough: over half of NZ wine; Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling, traditional method sparkling wines
- Canterbury: fastest growing region; Pinot Noir, Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
- Central Otago: highest altitude in NZ, southernmost in the world; continental climate; Pinot Noir
What is the minimum percent of a stated varietal or vintage in New Zealand?
- 85% (this will also apply to regions when legally defined)
- However, declaration of vintage and varietal is optional.
Name the up and coming region for Pinot Noir
Name the most promising region for Cab blends & Syrah
NZ North Island is known for what wines?
Chardonnay and Bordeaux style blends
NZ South Island is known for what wines?
Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir
What are the subregions of Hawke's Bay?
- Gimblett Gravels
- Ngatarawa (known for Merlot)
- Esk Valley
- Dartmoor Valley
- Havelock North
- The Triangle (formerly Ngatarawa Triangle)
- Te Awanga
State what 2 grapes were crossed to create Pinotage.
- Pinot Noir and Cinsault (originally thought to be Hermitage)
- developed in 1925 by Abraham Izak Perold, the first Professor of Viticulture at Stellenbosch University.
- The first wine was made in 1941.
State the meaning of cultivar.
- Term used in South Africa to mean grape variety.
- A cultivated variety of a plant that has been deliberately selected for its desirable characteristics.
What are the important culivars (grapes) of South Africa?
- White: Chenin Blanc (Steen), Muscat (Hanepoot), Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillion
- Black: Pinotage, CS, CF, Merlot, Syrah/Shiraz (both spellings), PN
Describe Vin de Constance.
- A world famous historic desert wine from South Africa.
- It is not known whether the wine was sweet from botrytis, fortification, or late harvest, nor if it was made from muscat, other grapes, or blends.
- It was the first New World wine to be coveted throughout the courts of Europe (sold to Louis Philippe (the last king of France) and the exiled Napoleon Bonaparte.
- The modern day, Vin de Constance, is a naturally sweet wine (late harvest, mostly muscat) grown, made, and bottled on Klein Constantia in Constantia.
Name 2 WOs of the Coastal Region & 1 WO of Breede.
- Western Cape: Coastal Region (Stellenbosch, Paarl, Cape Point, Darling, Franschhoek/F. Valley, Swartland, Tulbagh, Tygerberg)
- Western Cape: Breede River Valley (Breedekloof, Robertson, Worcester)
What is South Africa's appellation system called?
Wine of Origin (WO), introduced in 1973
Describe the WO hierarchy
- Geographical units: Regions, (Districts), [Wards]
- Western Cape: Breede River Valley; Cape South Coast; Coastal Region, Klein Karoo, Olifants River
- Northern Cape: NONE (Douglas, Sutherland-Karoo, NONE [Central Orange River, Hartswater, Rietrivier FS])
- Eastern Cape: No regions, No districts, [St Francis Bay]
- Kwazulu-Natal: No regions, No districts, No wards
- Limpopo: No regions, No districts, No wards
What is KWV?
Ko-operatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika is a cooperative of wine producers and growers, formed in 1918
What spurred a great renewal in South Africa's wine industry?
The end of apartheid in 1994 and the transformation of the KWV into a private company in 1997
Name the important grapes of New Zealand
- White: Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Gew�rztraminer
- Black: Pinot Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon
Where were New Zealand's modern fortunes founded?
- Sauvignon Blanc from Marlborough on the South Island
- Cloudy Bay Vineyards, launched in 1985, put the region on the map
Where are New Zealand's vineyards planted?
Flat expanses within 20 miles of the eastern coastline
Where are the Southernmost vineyards in the world?
New Zealand, South Island, Central Otago
Where are the Easternnmost vineyards in the world?
New Zealand, North Island
Do all New Zealand producers and growers belong the New Zealand Winegrowers organization?
Whare are the important grapes of South Africa?
- White: Chenin Blanc (Steen), Muscat (Hanepoot), Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
- Black: Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Shiraz, Pinot Noir
What is the capital city of Australia?
Canberra is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), about 175 mi south-west of Sydney
What is the difference between a clone, a cross, and a hybrid?
- Clone: descended from a single variety (e.g., Pommard clone of Pinot Noir)
- Cross: derived from 2 different varieties of the same species, usually Vitis vinifera (e.g., Pinotage = Pinot Noir X Cinsaut, Muller-Thurgau = Riesling X Chasselas)
- Hybrid: derived from two or more Vitis species (e.g., Seyval Blanc = Seibel 5656 X Rayon d'Or)
- Note: In botanical nomenclature, variety is a taxonomic rank below that of species
Name some top producers in South Africa
- Graham-beck: Robertson and Franschhoek
- Boekenhoutskloof: Franschhoek
- Bouchard-Finlayson: Walker Bay
- Meerlust: Stellenbosch
- Morgenhof: Stellenbosch
- Rustenberg: Stellenbosch
- Vergelegen: Stellenbosch (leading producer in South Africa)
- Fairview: Paarl
How is the original Constantial Estate divided today?
- Groot Constantia
- Klein Constantia
- Steenberg Estate
- Constantia Uitsig