eent

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Author:
cassiekay10
ID:
230979
Filename:
eent
Updated:
2013-08-22 22:07:36
Tags:
hearing
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Description:
hearing
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  1. 3 major divisions of ear
    • external
    • middle
    • inner
  2. external ear
    • pinna auricle
    • auditory meatus/canal
    • tragus
    • tympanic membrane
  3. pinna auricle
    • fleshy cartilage and conn tiss
    • collects sounds waves
  4. auditory meatus/canal
    • extends from pinna to tym mem 1 in
    • carries sound waves to tym mem
    • hairs/cerumen keep foreign objects out
  5. tym mem 4
    • eardrum
    • seperates outer from inner
    • vibrates when sound waves hit
    • conducts sound to middle ear bones
  6. exam for tym mem eardrum
    • otoscope exam
    • normal appearance: shiny, pearly, gray/white/pink and translucent
  7. movement of pinna for ear exam
    • adult up and back
    • 3 and under down and back
  8. middle ear 2
    • ossicles
    • eustachian/auditory tube
  9. ossicles
    description and 3 bones
    bones of middle ear; smallest in bd; amplify sound to inner ear

    • malleus (hammer)
    • incus (anvil)
    • stapes (stirrup)
  10. malleus 3
    • hammer ossicle bone
    • attaches to tym mem
    • reduces sound vibes and transmits to incus
  11. incus 2
    • anvil 2nd ossicle bone
    • recieves sound vibes from malleus and transmits to stapes
  12. stapes 2
    • stirrup 3rd ossicle bone
    • recieves sounds vibes from incus and transmits to oval window and on to fluid of inner ear
  13. eustachian/auditory tube 4
    • opening in middle ear
    • connects ear to throat (pharynx)
    • opens prn to equalize pressure of eardrum
    • more horizontal in children
  14. only air in middle ear
    fluid = problem/infection
  15. inner ear
    description and 3 structures
    • most complicated
    • lymphatic fluid (peri- in bony, endo- in membranous layer); conduct sound thru inner ear to sensory system

    • vestibule
    • semicircular canals
    • cochlea
  16. vestibule
    3 descriptions
    and 2 chambers
    • inner ear
    • next to oval window
    • 2 chambers containing fluid and receptors for equilibrium: 
    • utricle (larger sac)
    • sacule (smaller)
  17. semicircular canals 2
    • 3 bony tubes
    • membranous labyrinth canals (endolymph fluid)
  18. cochlea 4
    • snail shell
    • organ of Corti
    • hearing receptors (hair cells) connected in cochlear nerve CN8
  19. How we hear
    11 Pam And Emma Make Some Orange Ice Cream Cuz Theyre Real

    Pinna-->auditory canal-->eardrum-->mis-->stapes-->Oval window-->Inner ear-->cilia-->cochlear nerve-->temporal lobe-->round window
  20. conductive hearing loss
    disease/injury interferes w sound wave conduction to inner ear
  21. causes conductive hearing loss 4
    • cerumen blockage
    • otosclerosis 
    • om 
    • scar tiss
  22. hearing loss type w better prognosis
    conductive
  23. sensorineural hearing loss
    • nerve deafness
    • impairment of inner ear function, auditory nerve, or temporal lobe
  24. warning sign of sensorineural hearing loss
    tinnitus
  25. causes of sensorineural hearing loss
    • loud noise
    • ototoxic drugs gentamicin lasix
    • auditory tumor cn8
    • inner ear infection
    • dm
    • presbycusis
  26. OSHA hearing requirements
    wear ear protection if exposed to over 85 decibels for 8 hours (prevent senso loss)
  27. otalgia
    ear pain
  28. otitis media
    • middle ear infl/inf
    • uri spreads readily to throat esp in children
  29. risk factors for om
    bacteria/virus, uri, passive smoke, allergies/sinusitis/asthma
  30. types of om
    serous and acute purulent
  31. serous om 2
    • fluid forms in middle ear from inf, allergen, sudden altitude changes
    • causes congestion/obstruction at eust tube
  32. dx serous om
    • otoscopic exam
    • bulging eardrum from fluid
  33. serous om tx of choice
    amoxicillin and augmentin
  34. acute purulent om 3
    • pus forms in middle ear resulting from inf 
    • glue ear
    • increased pressure, decr hearing, fever, malaise
  35. complications of acute purulent om 5
    • mastioditis
    • scarring/perm perforation of eardrum
    • hearing loss
    • meningitis
    • chronic om
  36. mastoiditis
    infl/inf in mastoid cavity; result of chronic om
  37. s/s mastoiditis 7
    • severe pain
    • tenderness
    • swelling over mastoid
    • chills
    • fever
    • malaise
    • ha
  38. mastoidectomy
    • pastaural incision (behind ear)
    • surgical scraping of infected bone
  39. otosclerosis 2
    • ankylosis of stapes - stiffens
    • conductive hearing loss
  40. s/s otosclerosis 4
    • slow hearing loss esp soft tones
    • tinnitus at night
    • own voice sounds loud
    • earache
  41. tx otosclerosis
    stapedectomy
  42. stapedectomy
    • remove disease stapes and replace w prosthesis (teflon/stainless steel)
    • for otosclerosis
  43. menieres disease 3
    • increased endolymph fluid in inner ear w swelling and congestion of muc mem of cohclea
    • destroys delicate hair cells
    • usually in one ear; cause unknown
  44. s/s menieres disease 6
    • sudden attack hours to days long
    • triggered by etoh, nic, caff, msg, stress, bright lights, sudden movements
    • drop attacks - feel like pulled to floor
    • severe vertigo = n/v, poor coordination, ataxia
    • sense of fullness in ear
    • hearing loss
  45. dx menieres disease 3
    s/s, caloric test (will have an attack), glycerol test (osmotic effect pulls fluid from ear)

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