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  1. nasal septum
    bone and cartilage that seperates nasal cavities
  2. conchae
    • bony turbinates
    • 3 projections sup, inf, and middle
    • incr surface area of nasal cavities
  3. paranasal sinuses
    small air filled cavities lined w muc mem; drain into nose; frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and shenoidal
  4. how do we smell? 3
    chemoreceptors (nasal cavities)-->impulses travels along cn1 (olfactory nerve)-->temporal lobe
  5. epitaxis control
    • apply pressure to soft parts of nose for several minutes (10-15)
    • pt seated (lessens fainting and decr bld flow)
    • tilt head slightly forward
    • breathe thru mouth
    • ice pack to nose
    • suck on ice
    • emesis basin
    • tissues
  6. profuse nose bleeding
    • consult dr immediately
    • cotton pedgets saturated w silver nitrate/epineprine/cocaine may be ordered w application of pressure and cold compresses
  7. continued profuse nose bleeding
    pack nasal cavity w gauze for 24-72 hrs or cauterize blding areas
  8. post-op nasal surgery sign of hemorrhage
    • frequent swallowing
    • use flashlight look in back of throat
  9. nasopharynx*
    upper portion behind nasal cavities
  10. oropharynx*
    mid portion behind mouth
  11. laryngopharynx*
    lower portion that opens into larynx
  12. strep throat
    • streptococcal bacteria group A beta-hemolytic strep
    • establishes in lymphoid tiss and produces abrupt onset
  13. s/s strep
    sore throat, pain aggravated by swallowing/turning head, fever over 101, chills, ha, redness and edema, covered in yellow exudate, tender cervical nodes, sometimes rash
  14. rash with strep
    r/o scarlet fever
  15. complications of strep**
    rheumatic fever, nephritis
  16. strep tx
    pcn drug of choice
  17. nsg management strep
    vs, rest, mouth care, warn nss gargle, intermittent ice collar, humidification, anesthtic spray, monitor for complications
  18. t and a surgery
    tonsils and adenoids removed bc of chronic inf, cont hypertrophy causing obstruction, repeated attacks of pur om, or hearing loss due to ser om
  19. post op t and a
    • 1. observe for hemorrhage (immediately and pod 7-10) - freq swallowing*
    • 2. throat color: black to green/grey to white to pink
    • 3. freq vs (fever, shock)
    • 4. position on side then semi fowlers
    • 5. iv fluids and ff po¬†
    • **keep throat moist at all times***
  20. obstructive sleep apnea
    • repetitive episodes of partial and complete airway obstruction¬†
    • tongue and soft palate fall backward blocking airway
    • bldstream: co2 levels rise and o2 drops arousing pt
    • cont thru sleep cycle, apneic episodes may last 10 sec and up to 300 per night
  21. osa common in
    • obese men w short/thick neck
    • increases w age
  22. s/s osa 9
    • disrupted sleep pattern
    • daytime sleepiness
    • irritable
    • personality changes
    • ha
    • effects memory and concentration
    • htn
    • arrythmias
    • resp failure
  23. noisy sleep
    loud snoring/snorting/gasping
  24. dx osa
    • s/s
    • abgs
    • polysomnagraphy (sleep study)
  25. tx osa 6
    • wt loss
    • change in position
    • acoid cns depressants
    • pral appliance
    • cpap and bipap
    • surgery
  26. laryngeal ca
    • over age 60
    • 5x more in men
    • increased risk w heavy smokers, chronic etoh users
  27. cordectomy/partial laryngectomy 5
    • early stages esp true vocal cords
    • 80% cure
    • thyroid cart of larynx split midline of neck and diseased portion removed
    • trach tube may be left for breathing¬†
    • does not perm eliminate voice
  28. total laryngectomy 4
    • extrinsic tumor
    • excises entire larynx, including thyroid cart, cricoid cart, hyoid, vocal cords, epiglott, 3+ trach rings
    • modified or radical neck dissection
    • perm trach
  29. throat sprays
    nothing to eat/drink for 60 minutes bc throat anesthetized and gag relex inhibited

    use tongue depressor to spray
Card Set:
2013-08-23 02:48:11
nose throat

nose and thoat
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