Anatomy Lecture 1 - Skeletal System and joints
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What composes the axial skeleton?
Skull, Spinal column, sacrum, ribs.
What comprises the appendicular skeleton?
Limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle.
What are the functions of the skeleton?
Protection (for vital structures), Support (for body and vital cavities), Mechanical basis for movement (leverage), Blood cell production (bone marrow), Storage (salts)
Tubular in form. Femur, radius, Ulna, etc.
Cuboidal, ankle and wrist.
Usually serve as a protective function. Skull, scapula, ribs.
Various shapes. Face, Vertebrae
Develope in certain tendons. Patella. Two on the side of the Flexor hallicus tendon.
rounded areticular area
Ridge of bone. Iliac and scapula
eminence superior to a condyle. usually for a ligament
Smooth flat area usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone.
Passage through a bone
hollow or depressed area
indentation at the edge of a bone
projection of bone
Projecting spine like part
large blunt elevation, on the femur
large rounded elevation
small raised eminence
At what age does the humerous begin to ossify? when is ossification complete? What is it derived from?
- Ossify - 8 weeks
- Complete - 20 yrs
- Derived from Mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue)
What is the difference between "intramembranous ossification" and "endochondryal ossification"
- Intramembranous: (membranous formation) mesenchymal models of bone from during the embryotic persion and direct ossification begins during fetal period.
- Endochondral: (cartilaginous formation) catilage models form from mesenchtme during fetal period, bone subsequently replaces most of the caritlage.
How does long bone form?
Through endochondryal ossification
How does blood enter the osteocytes ( bonecells) ?
By means of hte Haversian system
What structures help blood enter and leave the bone?
The nutrient artery and vein.
What happens once blood enters the medullary cavity through the nutrient artery?
It is distributed in the bone through the periosteal artery, the epiphesial artery and the metaphyseal artery
What happens to a bone that has insufficient vascularization? to which bones does this happen the most?
It suffers avascular necrosis. Usually the scaphoid and the head or neck of the femur.
What are the three morphological types of joints?
- Fibrous - United by fibrous tissues (sutures, sydesmoses)
- Cartilagenous - United by hyaline or fibrous cartilage (synchondrosis, symphysis)
- Synovial - Most movable joints
Describe fibrous joints.
United by fibrous tissue. Sutures in cranium. Also, syndesmosis between the radius and ulna (interosseous membrane). Gomphosis between root of teeeth and alveolar process of jaw.
Decribe cartilagenous joints.
- Joints connected primarily by hyaline of fibro cartilage.
- Sychondroses, 1st rin and the manubrium, epiphyseal plate
- Symphyses, Intervertebral joints, pubic symphysis
Give 4 charatceristics of synovial joints
- 1. Cavity
- 2. Cavity is lined witha synovial membrane which sercretes synovial fluid
- 3. Articular cartilage
- 4. Fibrous joint capsule
What are the may types of synovial joints and some examples?
- Plane or gliding: The carpals and tarsals, facet joints or vertebrae, AC joint
- Hinge: Knee, elbow, interphalangeal
- Saddle: Thumb
- Ball and socket: glenohumeral, hip
- Pivot: atlanto-axial joint,
What tissues function to strengthen fibrous capsules of the synovial joints?
- Intrinsic Ligaments: between carpal bones alone
- Extrinsic Ligamnets: between carpal and metacarpal bones
- Intraarticular Ligaments: Inside like the ACL and PCL
- Extrarticular ligaments: Outside like the lateral and medial longitudinal ligaments
What are the three types of cartilage?
Describe hyaline caritlage.
Covers articular surfaces. Does not regenrate. If damage, heals over with fibrous carilage. Like teflon, provides smooth, low friction gliding surfaces. Avascular, relies on compression and decompression to be nurished with synovial fluid.
Decribe elastic cartilage.
Rigid but elastic framework. Epiglotis, ear
Rigid and fibrous. Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, Menisci
Explain the blood supply of joints.
Articular arteries arise from the vessels around the joints. The often anastomose (communicate) to form networks (periarticular arterial anastomoses) to assure blood supply across joint in all positions. Articular veins accompany the articular arteries.
Explain the nerve supply of joints.
Articular nerves arise from branches of cutaneous nerves supplying the over lying skin.
What is Hilton's law?
Nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin covering their distal attachments.
Articular nerves ytransmit sensory impulses from the joint that contribute to the sense of proprioception, which provides an awareness of movement and position of the parts of the body. The synovial membrane is relatively insensitive.. The fibrous tissue has much more sensation.
What is the outer layer of bone called?
What is the inner later of the bone called?
What is the inside cavity of the bone called?
The medullary cavity.
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