Anatomy Lecture 1 - Skeletal System and joints

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Anatomy Lecture 1 - Skeletal System and joints
2010-06-11 16:58:34

UNLV DPT 744 Gross Anatomy 1 Lecture 1 - Skeletal Structure and joints
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  1. What composes the axial skeleton?
    Skull, Spinal column, sacrum, ribs.
  2. What comprises the appendicular skeleton?
    Limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle.
  3. What are the functions of the skeleton?
    Protection (for vital structures), Support (for body and vital cavities), Mechanical basis for movement (leverage), Blood cell production (bone marrow), Storage (salts)
  4. Long Bone
    Tubular in form. Femur, radius, Ulna, etc.
  5. Short bones
    Cuboidal, ankle and wrist.
  6. Flat bones
    Usually serve as a protective function. Skull, scapula, ribs.
  7. Irregular bones
    Various shapes. Face, Vertebrae
  8. Sesamoid Bone
    Develope in certain tendons. Patella. Two on the side of the Flexor hallicus tendon.
  9. Condyle
    rounded areticular area
  10. Crest
    Ridge of bone. Iliac and scapula
  11. Epicondyle
    eminence superior to a condyle. usually for a ligament
  12. Facet
    Smooth flat area usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone.
  13. Foramen
    Passage through a bone
  14. Fossa
    hollow or depressed area
  15. groove
    elongated depression
  16. Line
    Linear elevation
  17. Malleolus
    rounded process
  18. Notch
    indentation at the edge of a bone
  19. Protuberance
    projection of bone
  20. Spine
    thorn like process
  21. Spinous process
    Projecting spine like part
  22. Trochanter
    large blunt elevation, on the femur
  23. Tuberosity
    large rounded elevation
  24. Tubercle
    small raised eminence
  25. At what age does the humerous begin to ossify? when is ossification complete? What is it derived from?
    • Ossify - 8 weeks
    • Complete - 20 yrs
    • Derived from Mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue)
  26. What is the difference between "intramembranous ossification" and "endochondryal ossification"
    • Intramembranous: (membranous formation) mesenchymal models of bone from during the embryotic persion and direct ossification begins during fetal period.
    • Endochondral: (cartilaginous formation) catilage models form from mesenchtme during fetal period, bone subsequently replaces most of the caritlage.
  27. How does long bone form?
    Through endochondryal ossification
  28. How does blood enter the osteocytes ( bonecells) ?
    By means of hte Haversian system
  29. What structures help blood enter and leave the bone?
    The nutrient artery and vein.
  30. What happens once blood enters the medullary cavity through the nutrient artery?
    It is distributed in the bone through the periosteal artery, the epiphesial artery and the metaphyseal artery
  31. What happens to a bone that has insufficient vascularization? to which bones does this happen the most?
    It suffers avascular necrosis. Usually the scaphoid and the head or neck of the femur.
  32. What are the three morphological types of joints?
    • Fibrous - United by fibrous tissues (sutures, sydesmoses)
    • Cartilagenous - United by hyaline or fibrous cartilage (synchondrosis, symphysis)
    • Synovial - Most movable joints
  33. Describe fibrous joints.
    United by fibrous tissue. Sutures in cranium. Also, syndesmosis between the radius and ulna (interosseous membrane). Gomphosis between root of teeeth and alveolar process of jaw.
  34. Decribe cartilagenous joints.
    • Joints connected primarily by hyaline of fibro cartilage.
    • Sychondroses, 1st rin and the manubrium, epiphyseal plate
    • Symphyses, Intervertebral joints, pubic symphysis
  35. Give 4 charatceristics of synovial joints
    • 1. Cavity
    • 2. Cavity is lined witha synovial membrane which sercretes synovial fluid
    • 3. Articular cartilage
    • 4. Fibrous joint capsule
  36. What are the may types of synovial joints and some examples?
    • Plane or gliding: The carpals and tarsals, facet joints or vertebrae, AC joint
    • Hinge: Knee, elbow, interphalangeal
    • Saddle: Thumb
    • Ball and socket: glenohumeral, hip
    • Pivot: atlanto-axial joint,
  37. What tissues function to strengthen fibrous capsules of the synovial joints?
    • Intrinsic Ligaments: between carpal bones alone
    • Extrinsic Ligamnets: between carpal and metacarpal bones
    • Intraarticular Ligaments: Inside like the ACL and PCL
    • Extrarticular ligaments: Outside like the lateral and medial longitudinal ligaments
  38. What are the three types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline
    • Fibrous
    • Elastix
  39. Describe hyaline caritlage.
    Covers articular surfaces. Does not regenrate. If damage, heals over with fibrous carilage. Like teflon, provides smooth, low friction gliding surfaces. Avascular, relies on compression and decompression to be nurished with synovial fluid.
  40. Decribe elastic cartilage.
    Rigid but elastic framework. Epiglotis, ear
  41. Describe Fibrocartilage
    Rigid and fibrous. Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, Menisci
  42. Explain the blood supply of joints.
    Articular arteries arise from the vessels around the joints. The often anastomose (communicate) to form networks (periarticular arterial anastomoses) to assure blood supply across joint in all positions. Articular veins accompany the articular arteries.
  43. Explain the nerve supply of joints.
    Articular nerves arise from branches of cutaneous nerves supplying the over lying skin.
  44. What is Hilton's law?
    Nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin covering their distal attachments.
  45. Proprioception
    Articular nerves ytransmit sensory impulses from the joint that contribute to the sense of proprioception, which provides an awareness of movement and position of the parts of the body. The synovial membrane is relatively insensitive.. The fibrous tissue has much more sensation.
  46. What is the outer layer of bone called?
  47. What is the inner later of the bone called?
  48. What is the inside cavity of the bone called?
    The medullary cavity.