Card Set Information

2013-08-23 03:09:28

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  1. Acid rain
    • Rain ( or other precipitation) that is unusually acidic; caused by air pollution in the form of sulfur and nitrogen dioxides.
    • (Chapter 16)
  2. Acid
    • A substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
    • (Chapter 2)
  3. Accessory organs
    • Organs including the pancreas, liver and gallbladder, which aid the digestive system.
    • (Chapter 16)
  4. ABO blood system
    • A system for categorizing human blood based on the process or absence of carbohydrates on the surface of red blood cells.
    • (Chapter 8)
  5. Actin
    • A protein found in muscle tissue that, together with myosin, facilitates contraction.
    • (Chapter 16)
  6. Activation energy
    • The amount of energy that reactants in a chemical reaction must absorb before the reaction can start.
    • (Chapter 4)
  7. Activator
    • A protein that serves to enchance the transcription of a gene.
    • (Chapter 8)
  8. Active site
    • Substrate-binding region of an enzyme.
    • (Chapter 4)
  9. Active transport
    • The ATP-requiring movement of substances across a membrane against their concentration gradient.
    • (Chapter 3)
  10. Adaptation
    • Trait that is favored by natural selection and increases an individual's fitness in a particular environment.
    • (Chapter 10,11)
  11. Adaptive radiation
    • Diversification of one or few species into large and very diverse groups of descendant species.
    • (Chapter 13)
  12. Adenine
    • Nitrogenous base in DNA, a purine.
    • (Chapter 2,4,5,9)
  13. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
    • A nucleotide composed of adenine, a sugar, and two phosphate groups. Produced by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate bond of ATP.
    • (Chapter 4)
  14. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • A nucleotide composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups that can be hydrolyzed to release energy. Form of energy that cells can use.
    • (Chapter 2,3,4)
  15. Aerobic
    • An organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
    • (Chapter 4)
  16. Aerobic respiration
    • Cellular respiration that uses oxygen as the electron acceptor.
    • (Chapter 4)
  17. Agarose gel
    • A jelly-like slab used to separate molecules on the basis of molecular weight. 
    • (Chapter 8)
  18. Algae
    • Photosynthetic protists.
    • (Chapter 13)
  19. Allele frequency
    The percentage of the gene copies in a population that are of a particular form, or allele.
  20. Allopatric
    • Geographic separation of a population of organisms from others of the same species. Usually in reference to speciation.
    • (Chapter 12)
  21. Alternative hypothesis
    • Factor other than the tested hypothesis that may explain observations.
    • (Chapter 1)
  22. Amenorrhea
    • abnormal cessaton of menstrual cycle.
    • (Chapter 1)
  23. Amino acid
    • Monomer subunit of a protein. Contains an amino, a carboxyl, and a unique side group.
    • (Chapter 2,3,9)
  24. Anaerboic
    • An organism, environment, or cellular process that does not require oxygen.
    • (Chapter 4)
  25. Anaerboic respiration
    • A process of energy generation that uses molecules other than oxygen as electron acceptors.
    • (Chapter 4)
  26. Anaphase
    • Stage of mitosis during which microtubules contract and separate sister chromatids.
    • (Chapter 6)
  27. Anchorage Dependence
    • Phenomenon that holds normal cells in place. Cancer cells can lose anchorage dependence and migrate into other tissues or metastasize.
    • (Chapter 6)
  28. Anecdotal evidence
    • Information based on one person's personal experience.
    • (Chapter 1)
  29. Angiogenesis
    • Formation of new blood vessels.
    • (Chapter 6)
  30. Angiosperm
    • Plant in the phyla Angiospermae, which produce seeds borne within fruit.
    • (Chapter 13)
  31. Animal
    • An organism that obtains energy and carbon by ingesting other organisms and is typically motile for at least part of their life cycle.
    • (Chapter 13)
  32. Animalia
    • Kingdom of Eukarya containing organisms that ingest others and are typically motile for part of their life cycle.
    • (Chapter 10,13)
  33. Annual plants
    • Plant that completes its life cycle in a single growing season.
    • (Chapter 16)
  34. Annual growth rate
    • Proportional change in population size over a single year. Growth rate is a function of the birth rate minus the death rate of the population.
    • (Chapter 14)
  35. Anorexia
    • Self-starvation.
    • (Chapter 4)
  36. Antibiotic
    • A chemical that kills or disables bacteria.
    • (Chapter 11,13)
  37. Antibiotic resistant
    • Characteristic of certain bacteria; a physiological characteristic that permits them to survive in the presence of particular antibiotics.
    • (Chapter 11)
  38. Anticodon
    • Region of tRNA that binds to mRNA codon.
    • (Chapter 9)
  39. Antixidant
    • Certain vitamins and other substances that protect the body from damaging effects of free radicals.
    • (Chapter 11)
  40. Antiparallel
    • Feature of DNA double helix in which nucleotides face "up" on one side of helix and "down" on the other.
    • (Chapter 9)
  41. Aquaporin
    • A transport protein in the membrane of a plant or animal cell that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
    • (Chapter 3)
  42. Aquatic
    • Of, or relating to, water.
    • (Chapter 16)
  43. Archaea
    • Domain of prokaryotic organisms made up of species known from extreme environments.
    • (Chapter 11)
  44. Artifical selection
    • Selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants to increase the frequency of desirable traits.
    • (Chapter 11)
  45. Asexual reproduction
    • A type reproduction in which one parent gives rise to genetically identical offspring.
    • (Chapter 6,12)
  46. Assortative mating
    • Tendency for individuals to mate with someone who like themselves.
    • (Chapter 12)
  47. Atom
    • The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
    • (Chapter 2)
  48. Atomic number
    • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Unique to each element, this number is designated by a subscript to the left of the symbol for the element.
    • (Chapter 2)
  49. ATP synthase
    • Enzyme found in the mitochondrial membrane that helps synthesize ATP.
    • (Chapter 4)
  50. Autosome
    • Non-sex chromosome, of which there are 22 pairs in humans. 
    • (Chapters 6,8)