Eukaryotic Cell Structure

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phut52
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231054
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Eukaryotic Cell Structure
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2013-08-23 13:42:43
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Eukaryotic Cell Structure
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  1. Modern Cell Theory
    • 1. All organisms are composed of cells and cell products
    • 2. A cell is the simplest structural and functional unit of life. There are no smaller subdivision of a cell organism that, in themselves , are alive.
    • 3. An organisms structure and all of its functions are ultimately due to the activities of its cells.
    • 4. cells come only from preexisting cells, not from nonliving matter. all life, therefore, traces its ancestry to the same original cells.
    • 5.Because of this common ancestry, the cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their chemical composition and metabolic mechanisms.
  2. all cells in the body except germ cells
    somatic cells
  3. sex cells
    germ cells
  4. somatic cells use____number
    diploid
  5. Somatic cells reproduce by_____
    mitosis
  6. germ cells reproduce by_____________
    meiosis
  7. germ cells use_____number
    haploid
  8. all fluid within the plasma membrane
    intracellular fluid
  9. all fluid outside the plasma membrane
    extracellular fluid
  10. extracellular fluid in the tissues, usaully between the cells
    interstitial fluid
  11. explain the limitation on cell surface area and volume and why cells must be small
    as cell enlarges, volume increases faster than surface area so the need for increased nutrients and waste removal exceeds abillity of membrane surface to exchange
  12. lateral part of cell
    apical cell surface
  13. median part of cell--attached to some membrane of cell
    basal cell surface
  14. film of lipids with proteins and other molecules embedded in it
    plasma membrane
  15. defines the boundaries of the cell, governs its interactions with other cells, and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell
    plasma membrane
  16. arrangement of mobile globular proteins embedded in an oily film of phospholipids
    plasma membrane
  17. what are the components of the phosolipid bilayer
    75% lipids with hydrophobic heads on each side and hydrophobic tails in the center
  18. keeps the membrane fluid
    phospholipids
  19. Name the protiens found in the phoshoplipid bilayer
    • transmembrane proteins
    • peripheral protiens
  20. protein that passes through membrane
    transmembrane protein
  21. protein that adheres to intracellular surface of membrane
    peripheral proteins
  22. anchors integral proteins to cytoskeleton
    peripheral proteins
  23. most are glycoproteins, conjugated with oligosaccharides on the extracellular sid of membrane
    transmembrane proteins
  24. may cross the plasma membrane once or multiple times
    transmembrane proteins
  25. membrane protein functions list
    • receptors 
    • second messenger systems
    • ezymes
    • channel proteins
    • carriers and pumps
    • cell identity markers
    • cell adhesion molecules
  26. functions of receptors
    • 1.cells communicate with chemical signals that cannot enter target cells
    • 2. receptors bind these messengers 
    • 3. each receptor is usually specific for one messenger
  27. allows the cell to respond to extracellular substances such as hormaones
    second messengers
  28. break down chemical messengers to stop their effects
    enzymes
  29. formed by transmembrane proteins, allows  water and hydrophillic solutes in and out
    channel proteins
  30. channel proteins that open and close are
    Gates
  31. control passage of electrolytes
    gated channels
  32. integral proteins that bind to solutes and transfer them accross membrane
    carriers
  33. carrier that consume ATP are called
    pumps
  34. enables our bodies to tell which cells belong to it and which are invaders
    cell identity markers
  35. allow cells to adhere to one another or to extracellular material
    cell adhesion molecoules
  36. Three types of intercelluar junctions
    • desmosomes
    • tight junction
    • gap junction
  37. Location of desmosomes
    • epidermis of skin
    • cardiac muscle
    • cervix of uterus
  38. hold adjacent cells together
    desmosomes
  39. completely encircles cell and holds it tightly to neighboring cell
    tight junction
  40. location of tight junctions and how it works in this location
    • intestinal tract and stomach
    • keeps nutrients from leaking between cells
  41. completely encircles cell and holds it tightly to neighboring cell
    tight junctions
  42. allows passage of ions, gluclose, amino acids, and other small solutes
    gap junction
  43. location of gap junction and what they do
    • intercalated discs in cardiac muscle and in smooth muscle
    • allows electrical excitation to pass from cell to cell
  44. connection between cells
    gap connections

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